: The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory Dennis Mills Deputy Associate Laboratory for Photon Sciences Deputy Director of the Advanced Photon Source ANL Day at MSU September 9-10, 2013
The Advanced Photon Source: Vital tool to advance U.S. scientific enterprise • Extremely bright source of hard x-rays (E > 10 keV). • APS has65 x-ray beamlines that support simultaneous and independent experiments. • Beamlines are optimized and equipped for various techniques: • Spectroscopy • Diffraction • Elastic and inelastic scattering • Imaging (full field, tomography, and scanning probe) • Over 5,000 users each year discoveries in physical and life sciences.
Materials Science: In situ mapping of microstructure and strain in extreme environments Can we understand and create robust structural materials – from the atomic scale on up – for use in extreme conditions? • High-energy diffraction microscopy (HEDM) allows simultaneous mapping of >100 grains, in mm-sized samples. • Can be performed in a variety of extreme experimental conditions (high stress/strain, high temp, radioactive samples, etc.) • These data form a basis for development of micro-structural-based design tools to design materials with improved properties. Computational model of elastic response inside a polycrystalline metal; A.D. Rollett et al., Modeling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 18, 074005 (2010)
Chemistry: Understanding photochemical dynamics in solution Can we observe and control pathways for efficient chemical reactions? • The high-repetition rate of the pulses of x-rays from the APS (6 MHz rep rate and 100 ps duration) allow time-resolved studies of local atomic and electronic coordinates of transient species using: • X-ray absorption spectroscopy • Small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) • X-ray diffraction, etc. Aqueous [Fe(terpy)2]2+ High spin Low spin t ~650 ps hn • K. Haldrup et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 9878 (2012). • G. Vanko et al., J. ElectronSpectrosc. Relat. Phenom., • http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.elspec.2012.09.012.
Life Sciences: Determining structure and dynamics from molecules to cells to organisms Can we unravel the molecular mechanisms of living organisms? APS leads world in the number of protein structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Full-field Imaging Micro CT Scanning probe Imaging Small-angle x-ray scattering Diffraction Crystallography G protein-coupled receptors Structure of β2AR-Gs complex 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded to Kobilka and Lefkowitz for studies of G protein-coupled receptors
Access to the APS Tells you what that beamline does and provides name and contact info for BL scientist. http://www.aps.anl.gov/Beamlines/Directory/ http://www.aps.anl.gov/Users/New/ 7 Access to the beamlines at the APS is proposal based (they are a couple of pages long)with calls for proposals 3 times a year. Proposals are evaluated by one of several Proposal Review Panels (PRPs) and given a rating from 1 (highest) to 5 (lowest) based on the proposed science. Proposals are allocated to the appropriate beamline for a particular number of shifts. There are no user fees for non-proprietary work.
Imaging at the APS The liquid breakup of a high-density stream from a fuel injector as imaged with ultrafast synchrotron x-ray full-field phase contrast imaging at the APS. Fluorescence nanoprobe images of trace elements in diatom cell, at 400 nm resolution; M.D. de Jonge, et al., PNAS USA, 107 (36): 15676 (2010) Insects deliver oxygen directly through a network of blind-ending tracheal tubes. As insects get bigger, this type of oxygen transport becomes far less effective. But increases the atmospheric oxygen levels, as happened in the late Paleozoic, would allow for longer tracheal and giants—could have evolved. Crack development in a ceramic after impact by a steel projectile. B.J. Jensen et al., AIP Advances 2, 012170 (2012) X-ray phase-contrast tomography: Early frog embryo in cellular resolution (left) and cell and tissue motion captured and visualized using flow analysis (right). Embryos are about 1 mm in diameter.
Fuel injector spray study Using hard x-rays in a phase contrast imaging mode, one can simultaneously image the fuel spray (low-Z hydrocarbons) and the steel plunger moving in and out forcing the fuel out the nozzles. aSOI = after Start of Injection
Educational and Training Opportunities Schools at the APS (in the last year or so): • October 17-19, 2012: LSXS 2012 - School on Liquid Surface X-ray Scattering: Theory and Experimental Methods • June 18-26, 2013: CCP4/APS School in Macromolecular Crystallography: From data collection to structure refinement and beyond • August 10-24, 2013: Neutron/X-ray Scattering School • October 26-31, 2013: Small-angle Scattering Short Course 2013 "Beyond RG ” ANL Student Internships, Co-ops, etc. • http://www.dep.anl.gov/p_undergrad/ • http://www.dep.anl.gov/p_graduate/ • http://www.dep.anl.gov/p_faculty/