European Exploration, Expansion, & Absolutism - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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European Exploration, Expansion, & Absolutism

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  1. European Exploration, Expansion, & Absolutism

  2. The Fondations of European Exploration Chapter 15, Sect. 1 • The desire to explore other lands was initially to expand trade. • Personal glory and religious fervor quickly followed. • Technological Advances – • New advances in technology offered the hope of expansion. • Mapmaking – • quality improved • mapmakers aware world was round • Navigational Instruments – • Magnetic compass – directional navigation • Astrolabe – measured relative position of celestial bodies • Helped determine a ship’s latitude • New Ships – • galleys used previously, moved by oar power • Improved sailing vessels- different shape sails, rudders to rear • Able to sail (tack) against the wind

  3. The Fondations of European Exploration Chapter 15, Sect. 1 • Economic Changes – • Commercial Revolution (1400-1750) • Regular use of money as a medium of exchange • Standardized values of currency denominations • Extended use of banks & their services • Joint-stock Companies- • raised money by selling stock • Stockholders became part owners, divide profits or losses • Political Changes • Strong Monarchies • Rulers looked toward exploration to increase wealth • Rulers often financed explorers & colonists

  4. The Fondations of European Exploration Chapter 15, Sect. 1 • Mercantilism – • New economic theory • Governments obligated to increase country’s wealth • Wealth measured by amount of gold & silver it possessed • World contained only a fixed amount of wealth • To increase own wealth, take from others • or mining metals at home • Balance of trade • Selling more goods than they bought (favorable balance of trade) • Selling goods to others increased country’s gold & silver • Could impose tariffs (import tax) to reduce influx of foreign goods • Could make grants (subsidies) of $$ to businesses • Colonies • Sources of gold & silver • Sources of raw materials • Markets for finished goods

  5. The Fondations of European Exploration Chapter 15, Sect. 1 • Social Change – • Population increases • Crowded urban areas • Some sort adventure & escape by exploring • Some looked for a new start, better economic opportunity • Some were simply treasure hunters • Some left for both political & religious freedom

  6. Voyages of Portugal & Spain Chapter 15, Sect. 2 • Portugal & Prince Henry • Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal • Founded school of navigation & sailing,royal support to explorers • Claimed Azores, Explored coast of Africa • Traded slaves, gold & ivory • Batholomeu Dias (1488) sailed around Cape of Good Hope (Africa) • Vasco da Gama (1497) sailed around Cape to India (1498) • Traded for spices & jewels • Christopher Columbus • Genoan (Italy) navigator turned down by Portugal • Financed by Ferdinand & Isabella, monarchs of Spain • Claimed Caribbean Islands for Spain • Opened Columbian Exchange (movement of products, plants, animals, even diseases between Old & New Worlds) • Opened up Western Hemisphere to exploration & trade

  7. Voyages of Portugal & Spain Chapter 15, Sect. 2 • Dividing the New Lands • Spain & Portugal • Both countries often claimed same areas • 1493 Pope Alexander VI edict with Line of Demarcation (pg 362) • Both signed Treaty of Tordesillas • Pedro Cabral- heading to India is blown off course discovers Brazil • Amerigo Vespucci believes he has discovered new world • A German mapmaker names new land America after Vespucci • Balboa crosses Isthmus of Panama sees Pacific Ocean (denotes separation from Asia) • Magellan leaves Spain with 5 ships to circumnavigate the world, he is killed enroute, only one ship completes the journey • Portuguese claim parts of Africa, Brazil, Azores, parts of India, & SE Asia

  8. Voyages of Portugal & Spain Chapter 15, Sect. 2 • The Slave Trade • Portugal needed slave labor to run their sugar plantations on islands of Principe & Sao Tome • Plantations soon also set up in New World where slaves needed • Other countries noted lucrative slave trade & began their own • Triangle Trade: • Stage One – cotton goods, weapons & liquor to Africa from Europe in exchange for gold or slaves (purchased from African tribes) • Stage Two – Middle Passage, slaves shipped to Americas for sale • Stage Three – Plantations products sent to Europe to buy manufactured goods to be sold in the Americas or in Africa for more slaves

  9. Voyages of Portugal & Spain Chapter 15, Sect. 2 The Triangle Trade

  10. Voyages of Portugal & Spain Chapter 15, Sect. 2 • Weaknesses of the Portuguese Empire • Empire grew very quickly, Portugal’s government financially unsound • Overextended- grew a large empire too quickly (logistically unsound) • Portugal under-populated to maintain vast empire (losses in war, sea accidents) • Spain annexed (took over) Portugal in 1580, neglected empire maintenance

  11. Spanish & Dutch Explorers Chapter 15, Sect. 3 • Spain’s Colonial Empire • Primarily the Americas & the Philippines • Americas offered tremendous natural resources • Colonization started in Caribbean & expeditions followed to other areas • Explorers: • Ponce de Leon – Florida, 1513 • Navarez – Florida, (de Vaca)SW portion of what is now US, 1528 • Hernan Cortes – Central Mexico, conquered Aztecs 1519 • Francisco Pizarro – West Coast- Andes, S. America. Conq. Incas, 1530 • Government & Society: • Centralized government run by Viceroy (Representative for King of Spain) • Reported to the Council of the Indies in Spain • Set up large farms & mining systems, native population forced to slavery • Native population decimated, disease from Spanish, not effective slaves • Africans brought to work on farms & plantations

  12. Spanish & Dutch Explorers Chapter 15, Sect. 3 • Spain’s Colonial Rivals • French, Dutch, & English • Rivals attacked shipping (gold,etc.) • Colonized mostly N.America • Charles V: • Part of Habsburg family, Born in Flanders, Holy Roman Emperor • Spoke 5 different languages • Halted Ottoman Turks from invading Europe • Religious wars drained Spanish resources • lack of industries=financial problems • Abdicated Spanish throne to son Phillip II • Abdicated Holy Roman Emperor throne to brother Ferdinand I

  13. Spanish & Dutch Explorers Chapter 15, Sect. 3 • Phillip II • Dedicated to his country, worked long hours • Consolidated power in monarchy, caused problems in operation of gov’t. • Viewed himself leader of Counter-Reformation, intensified inquisition • Drained Spain’s Treasury fighting religious wars • Resulting high taxes caused inflation • Borrowed heavily from foreign banks • Defeated Turks in Mediterranean, Lost to England (Spanish Armada) • Unsuccessfully intervened in other European countries • Lost the Netherlands • Broke Spain’s military power • lost Spain’s role as world leader forever

  14. Spanish & Dutch Explorers Chapter 15, Sect. 3 • Rise of the Dutch • Fiercely independent people, sought self-rule • Taxed heavily to support Spain’s religious wars • Upset by religious persecution by the Spanish • Revolted against Spanish rule, lead by William the Silent • Developed guerilla warfare • Opened the dikes, flooding inhibiting Spanish armies • Northern provinces won independence 1648, became Holland • Southern provinces remained Catholic, modern day Belgium • DutchSociety: • Reclaimed country from sea (dike systems) • Great traders & seafarers • Amsterdam world center for shipbuilding, manufacturing, trade & banking • Lively cultural center (Descartes, Rembrandt, etc.)

  15. Spanish & Dutch Explorers Chapter 15, Sect. 3 • Dutch Colonial Empire • Dutch East India Company • Combination of several merchant trading companies • Monopoly granted by Dutch Government • Includes Africa & East Indies • Took over many of the old Portuguese colonies • Expanded form trading ports to true colonies • Made trading contacts with Japan • Purchased Manhattan Island from Native Americans (New Amsterdam) • Did not attempt to convert colonies to Christianity • Ran colonies like a business

  16. Spanish & Dutch Explorers Chapter 15, Sect. 3 • Decline of the Spanish Empire • Dutch revolt marks beginning of the end • Increase costs of operation (increased population – food, clothes, etc.) • Inflation resulted due to increased money supply (colonial gold & silver) • Decline of industry due to inflation –(couldn’t compete with foreign markets) • Expelled Jews & Moors who had business skills • Other groups emigrated for better opportunities elsewhere • Was Gold & Silver taken from the colonies actually good or bad for the Spanish Economy?

  17. France in the Age of Absolutism Chapter 15, Sect. 4 • Henry IV • Gave up being Huguenot took throne as a Catholic “Paris is well worth a mass” • Passed special order, “Edict of Nantes,” to protect Huguenots • Guaranteed freedom of worship • Guaranteed political rights • Rebuilt army & infrastructure of country • Appointed finance minister, Duke of Sully, to revise tax system • revised right to collect taxes by private individuals (tax farming) • Abolished unnecessary public offices • Develop a treasury surplus • Stabbed to Death in 1610 by fanatical monk

  18. France in the Age of Absolutism Chapter 15, Sect. 4 • Louis XIII • 8 years old became king • Marie de Medici, mother, became Regent • Served as ruler of France until 1617 • Served 3yrs after Louis came of age, due to his poor health • Chose Cardinal Richelieu as chief advisor • Cardinal Richelieu • Wanted monarchy supreme (weaken nobles) • Wanted France supreme in Europe • Saw Huguenots’ fortified towns as political threat- attacked & defeated • Appointed strong regional administrators called intendants • Intendants had strong powers & reported directly to king

  19. France in the Age of Absolutism Chapter 15, Sect. 4 • Louis XIII • Thirty Years War • Stretches of fighting interrupted by intervals of peace • Began in Prague, 1618 (current day Czech Republic) • Holy Roman Emperor VS German & Dane Princes • Most battles took place in Germany, devastated countryside • France eventually joined against Holy Roman Emperor • Settled by Treaty of Westphalia, 1648 • War weakened Habsburgs, Strengthened France • The Fronde • Series of rebellions (1648-1652) name means “sling” • Rebels wanted to curb power of monarchy • Supported by peasants • Mercilessly crushed

  20. France in the Age of Absolutism Chapter 15, Sect. 4 • Louis XIV, Sun King • Versailles • Enormous palace outside Paris built as center of government • Extravagant & expensive • Emphasized Louis’ belief in Divine Right of Kings • Moved important nobles to Versailles to serve him • Policies • Advisor- Jean-Baptiste Colbert- from middle class, expert financier • Used government subsidies to build industries • Encouraged colonization of North America • Used high tariffs to protect local merchants • Discouraged wasteful policies, corrupt taxation

  21. France in the Age of Absolutism Chapter 15, Sect. 4 • Louis XIV, Sun King • Policies • Concerned over religious disunity, believed Huguenots disturbed unity • Revoked “Edict of Nantes,” 1685, more than 200,000 fled France • Wars of Louis XIV • Secretary of State for War- Marquis de Louvois, military genius • Appointed training officer- Jean Martinet- very strict discipline • Built army of over 400,000, which caused other countries to forms alliances to maintain balance of power • Fought four wars to extend and strengthen boundaries of France • Final war- War of the Spanish Succession, Treaty of Utrecht (1613) • Provided Thrones of France & Spain could not be united • Gave British lands if N.America that had been French

  22. France in the Age of Absolutism Chapter 15, Sect. 4 • Louis XIV, Sun King • French Colonial Empire • Much of Canada, Mississippi Valley, & Caribbean Islands • Used French East India Company to control parts of India • Legacy of Louis XIV • Made France one of Leading powers in Europe • Developed as cultural center of Europe • Strong Colonial power (although eventually lost most colonies)

  23. Eastern & Central Europe in the Age of Absolutism • Russian Isolation • Russia becomes independent 1480. • Leaders in Moscow expand power to control Russia • Factors that separate Russia from Western Europe • Asian influence from Mongol Rule • Eastern Orthodox Christianity • Use of Cyrillic alphabet, instead of Roman • Landlocked nation . . . No outlets to major oceans for commerce & cultural diffusion Chapter 15, Sect. 5

  24. Eastern & Central Europe in the Age of Absolutism • New Dynasty • 1613 - Michael Romanov elected CZAR by National Assembly. • Romanovs’ strengthened Monarchy, weakened popular rule • Re-established serfdom • Peter the Great 1682-1725 • Over 6 1/2/ feet tall, rugged, & swarthy • Traveled to western Europe w/Russian delegation to negotiate allies • slipped away in disguise worked as carpenter in shipyard • Sought to learn western skills & customs first hand • Returned home, began westernizing country Chapter 15, Sect. 5

  25. Eastern & Central Europe in the Age of Absolutism • Westernization • Re-organized army, equipped w/better weapons • Engaged in war w/Sweden to gain Baltic port • Built St. Petersburg on conquered land (swampy . . .) • Moved capitol to St. Petersburg • Cultural Changes: • Women took greater role in community life • Men forced to adopt western style dress • Men forced to shave off beards • Economic Changes: • Heavier taxes to support military, & building projects • encouraged foreign trade & manufacturing Chapter 15, Sect. 5

  26. Eastern & Central Europe in the Age of Absolutism • Nobility • Peter created new “service” class nobility • Rank dependent on amount of government service, instead of heredity • Peter granted large estates w/thousands of serfs to reward service • Strengthened serf system while Europe was eliminating elsewhere Chapter 15, Sect. 5

  27. Eastern & Central Europe in the Age of Absolutism • Catherine the Great • Princess from small German state • Married Peter the Great’s grandson • She supported Arts, Sciences, etc. • Continued expansionist policies • Continued to westernize nobility • Beat the Turks, won warm water ports on Black Sea • With Prussia & Austria divided (partitioned) Poland, which ceased to exist until 1919 • Sent Cossacks East to overcome Mongol Horde Chapter 15, Sect. 5

  28. Eastern & Central Europe in the Age of Absolutism • Habsburg Austria • Lost much territory in 30 yrs war, but won new lands from Turks, Poles • Charles VI dies 1740, Maria Theresa inherits Empire (pragmatic sanction) • She could only be Empress, when Husband Francis was elected Emperor. • Greatest rival – Brandenburg-Prussia • Hohenzollerns- • Ruled several scattered territories including Prussia • Frederick William, the Great Elector: built strong army, improve tax collection, encourages farming, industry & transportation • Frederick I: consolidates territories into one Prussia, 1st King of Prussia • Frederick William I: eliminated luxury, doubled Prussian army, efficient gov’t. • Frederick the Great: 1st 23 yrs at war, 2nd 23yrs spent reforming Prussia, left large prosperous nation Chapter 15, Sect. 5