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The Office of Mental Retardation’s Plan to Support Elimination of Restraint through Positive Practices - Chapter 1. National Perspective. Elimination and reduction of restraint is a national trend.

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The Office of Mental Retardation’s Plan to Support Elimination of Restraint through Positive Practices - Chapter 1

national perspective
National Perspective
  • Elimination and reduction of restraint is a national trend.

“…It is now a priority for SAMSA to work with States…to ultimately eliminate the use of seclusion and restraint…There is a wealth of research that physical force, bodily immobilization and isolation inherent in the practices of seclusion and restraint are dehumanizing…” Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration. Administrator Charles Curie

national perspective1
National Perspective
  • Six Core Strategies for the Reduction of Seclusion /Restraint - National Technical Assistance Center/National Executive Training Institute 2/25/2005
    • Leadership toward Organizational Change
    • Use of Data to Inform Practice
    • Workforce Development
    • Use of Restraint Reduction Tools
    • Consumer Roles
    • Debriefing Techniques
national perspective2

Restraints keep patients safe.

Restraints keep staff safe.


Each year, 50 – 100 deaths occur nationally due to seclusion and restraint.

For every 100 mental health aides, 26 injuries were reported in three – survey 1996

National Perspective
national perspective3

Restraints are used only when absolutely necessary and for safety reasons.

Restraints are not used as, or meant to be punishment


Patients are restrained for such trivial “offenses” as refusing to move to another dining room table.

People who have been secluded or restrained typically experience a sense of punishment.

National Perspective
department of public welfare initiative
Department of Public Welfare Initiative
  • Alternative to Coercive Techniques Initiative (ACT) – Initial goal of eliminating unnecessary restraints in the children’s service system, and an ultimate goal of having all Department of Public Welfare serving systems be restraint free.
    • Office of Children Youth and Families (OCYF)
    • Office of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services (OMHSAS)
    • Office of Medical Assistance Programs (OMAP)
    • Office of Mental Retardation (OMR)
  • Positive Approaches Subcommittee
  • Positive Approaches Local Networking Groups
  • Restrictive Procedure Workgroup
  • OMHSAS & OMR Dual Diagnosis Forums
  • Trainings for families, direct support professional and other support staff
  • Mental Health Support Process subcommittee
  • Statewide Positive Practices Committee
  • Positive Practices Resource Team (Pilot)
everyday lives values



Community Inclusion

Contributing to the Community










Everyday Lives Values
positive approaches paradigm
Positive Approaches Paradigm
  • Positive Approaches is a worldview in which all individuals are treated with dignity and respect, and all are entitled to “Everyday Lives”.
  • Positive Approaches recognizes that an “Everyday Life” means being able to make choices, face challenges, succeed, and sometimes fail.
  • Positive Approaches is a characterized by an integration of values, philosophies and technologies.
positive approaches paradigm1
Positive Approaches Paradigm
  • Positive Approaches asks us to always look at the context in which we frame our work.
  • Positive Approaches is grounded in two basic assumptions:
    • People always have good reasons for what they are doing.
    • People always do the best they can with what they know in that context and at that point in time.
positive approaches
Positive Approaches
  • Communication
  • Assessment
  • Environment
  • Hanging in there
positive approaches1
Positive Approaches
  • Environment - An individual's perception of their environment, and how that environment will meet their needs may influence their behavior.
  • Communication - An individual may use a variety of means to communicate inclusive of challenging behavior.
  • Assessment - Formal assessment tools, in addition to developing a holistic view of the persons life.
  • Hanging in there – Staying with the person, and of critical importance, supporting the team to be able to stay with person.
elimination of restraints through positive practices

Elimination of Restraints through Positive Practices

MR Bulletin 00-06-09

Effective May 1, 2006

elimination of restraints through positive practices1
Elimination of Restraints through Positive Practices

Although the intent of this Bulletin is to guide activities toward the eventual elimination of restraints throughout the entire MR Service system, the bulletin does not prohibit their use. Restraint is to be considered only as a last resort and in situations where any person’s immediate health and safety are in jeopardy. This bulletin offers best practice suggestions that are part of an OMR plan to incrementally reduce the incidents of restraint.

elimination of restraints through positive practices2
Elimination of Restraints through Positive Practices
  • Philosophy of Care
  • Continuous Risk Management and Quality Efforts
  • Reducing Restraints and Restrictive Procedures
philosophy of care
Philosophy of Care
  • The individual is the central focus of the planning team.
  • Creating a safe and supportive person centered environment.
  • Use and inclusion in the ISP of positive practices that are known to be effective in helping the individual.
philosophy of care1
Philosophy of Care
  • Prevention and early detection are critical.
  • Creating a culture of respect and insuring training for staff that focuses on all forms of positive practices.
continuous risk management training recommendations
Continuous Risk Management Training Recommendations
  • Environmental design, social, physiological and cultural motivators for behavior, including information on individuals who have experienced trauma.
  • Positive behavioral and support methods that include techniques to deescalate behavior.
  • Information on methods for interacting with individuals who have a dual diagnosis of mental retardation and a mental illness.
continuous risk management training recommendations1
Continuous Risk Management Training Recommendations
  • Person centered alternatives to the utilization of restraint, including the integration of effective behavioral supports and individual teaching strategies.
  • Basic training in body mechanics.
  • Definitions, policies and the risks associated with the application of restraint.
provider risk management process recommendations
Provider Risk Management Process Recommendations
  • Ongoing quality improvement directed at reducing and eliminating restraint.
  • Policies and procedure for insuring the safety of individuals in crisis in a restraint free agency.
  • Procedure for post review of restraints with staff involved in the implementation of restraints.
provider risk management process recommendations1
Provider Risk Management Process Recommendations
  • Procedure for debriefing with the individual, post restraint, that provides for processing the event.
  • Internal review committees responsible for post restraint follow up and the outcomes based on the review.
  • Policies of risk management consistent with MR Bulletin 6000-04-01 entitled “Incident Management”
continuous risk management administrative review
Continuous Risk Management Administrative Review
  • OMR Recommends
    • The County Mental Health/Mental (MH/MR) Retardation Program or Administrative Entity should review each provider’s policies on behavior supports, restrictive procedures and restraint.
    • OMR Licensing Representatives and the Department Health Representatives, as part of their annual surveys and program monitoring, will review provider policies on restrictive procedures and restraint use.
reducing restraints and restrictive procedures
Reducing Restraints and Restrictive Procedures
  • Restraint is not treatment or a substitute for treatment.
  • Physical restraint is used only as a last resort safety measure when there is a threat to the health and safety of the individual and/or others And only when less intrusive methods have been ineffective.
reducing restraints and restrictive procedures individual plan recommendations
Reducing Restraints and Restrictive ProceduresIndividual Plan Recommendations

OMR Recommends Providers develop procedures that outline specific steps to be taken for the elimination of restraint components in any individual’s plan and approval of individual specific plans that contain the following positive components:

reducing restraints and restrictive procedures individual plan recommendations1
Reducing Restraints and Restrictive Procedures Individual Plan Recommendations
  • Information about the occurrence of the problem behavior and what specific positive practices that can be used to prevent future occurrences
  • Justification that the proposed plan contains the most effective methods of helping the individual deal with the problem behavior while promoting the safety of the individual and others.
  • Information about what procedures did not work in the past as well as alternatives if the current procedures prove ineffective.
reducing restraints and restrictive procedures individual plan recommendations2
Reducing Restraints and Restrictive Procedures Individual Plan Recommendations
  • A review of “sentinel events” to learn and communicate what has worked well in avoiding the restraint.
  • The type of procedure to be used with an individual whose restraint reduction plan incorporates the possible use of emergency restraint in order to protect the individual’s health and safety.
omr plan to eliminate the need for restraint1
OMR Plan to Eliminate the Need for Restraint
  • Developed to complement and correspond with the principles of the Department of Public Welfare ACT Initiative
  • Establishes the requirement for Regional Positive Practice Committees to review restraint reduction plans specific to the region in concert with Regional Risk Management Committees
  • Charges the Statewide Positive Practices Committee with the responsibility of reviewing regional plans
omr plan to eliminate the need for restraint2
OMR Plan to Eliminate the Need for Restraint
  • Sets a goal of twenty percent reduction in each of the four regions using data from the Home and Community Information Systems (HCSIS) during FY 2006 -2007
    • Expectation that there will be a 20% reduction in the number of physical restraints thereafter
    • At the end of the fiscal year the restraint elimination plan will be reviewed with adjustments in expectations and strategies as appropriate
regional positive practices committee ppc
Regional Positive Practices Committee (PPC)
  • Promote and expand interest/leadership within the County MH/MR Program/Administrative Entities to build capacity to serve people with challenging behavior
  • Develop Regional Restraint Elimination Plans
  • In partnership with the local stakeholders, plan and facilitate local Positive Practice Committee Meetings
regional positive practices committee ppc1
Regional Positive Practices Committee (PPC)
  • Identify existing resources and gaps within the local PPC area
  • Identify steps to address gaps
  • Identify the regional structure to support the Positive Practices Resource Teams (Pilot)
statewide positive practices committee
Statewide Positive Practices Committee
  • Review statewide restraint data
  • Review Regional Positive Practices Committee Plans
  • Make recommendations regarding Regional Restraint Elimination plans
omr and omhsas partnership
OMR and OMHSAS Partnership
  • Positive Practices Resource Team (Pilot)
    • Purpose is to identify and develop system resources that will be dedicated to address issues pertaining to a person’s behavioral support needs.
    • The criteria for referral is the person must be demonstrating escalating at risk behavioral challenges and may be at risk for needing enhanced levels of support not readily available to the provider
    • Piloted in Central Region with resources from OMR Regional Office, OMHSAS Field Office, Selinsgrove Center, Danville State Hospital, Wernersville State Hospital
omr bulletins supporting the plan
OMR Bulletins Supporting the Plan
  • 00-06-09 OMR Elimination of Restraints through Positive Practices
  • 00-04-05 OMR Positive Approaches
  • 00-03-05OMR Principles for the Mental Retardation System
  • 00-02-16OMHSAS, OMR Coordination of treatment and support for people with a diagnosis of serious mental illness who also have a diagnosis of mental retardation
  • 00-00-04OMHSAS, OMR Guidelines for Identifying Persons with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness for State Mental Health Hospital Discharge
next steps
Next Steps
  • OMR will integrate the Positive Practice goals with the Quality Management Framework to ensure learning, sustainability and connection to other OMR initiatives
  • Implement three month pilot of Positive Practice Resource Team
  • Regions to complete Restraint Elimination Plans
  • Next Positive Practices State Wide Committee to review Regional plans and provide input into plans
omr contacts
Western Region Northeast Region

Sharon Lipscomb Michele O’Toole

300 Liberty Avenue 100 Lackawanna Ave.

Pittsburgh, PA 15222 Scranton, PA 18503

412-565-3688 570-963-3212

Central RegionSoutheast Region

William Bruaw Kathleen Gerrity

430 Willow Oak Bldg. 1400 Spring Garden St.

Harrisburg, PA 17105 Philadelphia, PA 19130

717-705-8266 215-560-2247

OMR Contacts