Hybrid GIS Technology for Groundwater Resource Management in IndiaPrabir Kumar Mukherjee April 2, 2014
Agenda Introduction Need for Groundwater Resource Management GIS in Groundwater Resource Management Improved Technology - GIT Business Benefits
Introduction • Fresh water is a finite and vulnerable resource, essential to sustain life, development and the environment • Water development and management should be based on a participatory approach, involving users, planners and policymakers at all levels • Women play a central part in the provision, management and safeguarding of water • Water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be recognized as an economic good ‘pragmatic but principled approach that respects the concepts of economic efficiency, social equity and environmental sustainability but recognizes that management can be intensely political and that reform requires prioritised, sequenced, practical and patient interventions’. Reference: GWMate Briefing Note
Need for Groundwater Resource Management • 2000 million people, innumerable farmers and many industrial premises depend on groundwater • Accelerated development has resulted in great social and economic benefits, providing low-cost, drought-reliable high-quality water supplies • Management and protection of groundwater has been seriously neglected, potentially endangering the resource • The sustainability of groundwater is linked to policy issues influencing water and land use, and represents one of the major global challenges in natural resource management • There is a need to integrate groundwater and surface water management to ensure better overall water management and allocation
Need for Groundwater Resource Management • Millions of m3 pumped every year • Monitored? Why? Who? How? Use? quantity / quality • 100’s of thousands of users • Controlled? Registered? • 10’s of thousands of wells / boreholes • Registered? Maintained? Monitored? • Have the information Stored on location, abstraction, water levels, water quality, formation etc.? • 1000’s of sources of pollution • Location, nature & quantity of pollutants? aquifer vulnerability? • 100’s of drillers / consultants • Registered? Development & drilling data recorded & submitted? • Many governing departments /institutions • Joint management ? Coordination / cooperation? Source (AGW)
Approaches of Groundwater Resource Management Natural Recharge (excess rainfall, surface water seepage) Artificial Recharge (irrigation losses, wastewater returns) Indirect Recharge (aquitard leakage, cross-formational flow) Aquifer Storage (groundwater resource) SUSTAINABLE GROUNDWATER DEVELOPMENT Environmental Benefits Human Benefits Economic Benefits Water for People Groundwater supply (drinking water & Sanitation and livelihood) Water for development Groundwater abstraction (agriculture & Industry) Water for the Environment Groundwater discharge (Springs, surface water, wetlands, coastal zone) Hiscock, 2002
Water and land use efficient Water-users Satisfied Increasing demand + Contaminant Load Approaches of Groundwater Resource Management With IWRM Without IWRM Management function Enabling Environment Acceptable demand + contaminant load Water and land-use behaviour worsen Dissatisfaction of water-users increases Aquifer system/ groundwater resources impacted Quality and quantity deteriorated Policy framework Regulatory Framework Aquifer system/ groundwater resources protected Quality and quantity stabilize Definition of Water Rights Decentralised Administrative setup Unrestricted Demand + Unregulated Resources Monitoring Resource Evaluation Resource Allocation Pollution control Economic valuation Stakeholder Participation Reliable supply reducing with increasing cost Secure supply at reasonable cost
Evolution of GIS in Groundwater Study In 1970 - Computer Mapping During this period most GIS analysis were limited to Manual Processing of spatial data. This period saw computer mapping automate map drafting. The points, lines and areas defining geographic features on a map are represented as an organized set of X, Y coordinates. In 1980 – Spatial Database Management Spatial database management systems were developed that linked computer mapping capabilities with traditional database management capabilities. Increasing demands for mapped data focused attention on data availability, accuracy and standards, as well as data structure issues. 4D GIS (XYZ and Time) --Future Perception Multimedia Mapping --2000 ‘s In 1990 - Map Analysis / Modeling During this period the bulk of descriptive query operations were available in most GIS systems and attention turned to a comprehensive theory of map analysis. The spatial information used to represented numerically, rather than in analog way as inked lines on a map. The GIS applications were now centering towards two forms spatial statistics and spatial analysis in groundwater study. In 2000 - Multimedia Mapping In this period, GIS systems and applications saw new trends like Data Exchange & Interoperability Standards, Development of Web Services, Enhanced Display Capabilities, 3D visualization, Integration of Global Positioning System and Remote Sensing Imagery with GIS in groundwater study. Future Perceptions 4D GIS (XYZ and time), Tomorrow’s data structures will accommodate time as a stored dimension and completely change the conventional mapping paradigm. The future also will build on the cognitive basis, as well as the databases, of GIS technology. Information systems are at a threshold that is pushing well beyond mapping, management, modeling, and multimedia to spatial reasoning and dialogue.
Sustainability of Planet Earth: Connections between and achieving balance among social, economic and environmental pieces of a community. Hybrid Technology/Geospatial Information Technology (GIT) : An integration of geo-spatial information science and technology into a geographic information system (GIS) which has incredible role in SMART Governance In groundwater management Concept - GIS+IT=GIT in Groundwater Resource Management SMART Governance means: Process of decision making in a simple, moral, accountable, responsive, and transparent manner
Concept – Target Area in Groundwater Resource Management TARGET of GIT
GIS Technology Improvement in Groundwater Resource Management • Desktop GIS products offer many advantages including: • Advanced capabilities and powerful functionality “out of the box“ • Internet connectivity is not required • Performance is not dependent on bandwidth • The disadvantages of traditional desktop applications include: • Licensing costs are high on a per user basis compared to web-based GIS • PCs with higher specifications are required • More advanced user training is required • Distributed GIS have all of the system components in the different physical locations. This could be the processing, the database, the rendering or the user interface. Examples of distributed systems are • Web-based GIS, • Mobile GIS, • Enterprise GIS • An Enterprise Geographical Information System satisfies the spatial information needs of an organization as a whole in an integrated manner. Enterprise GIS consists of four technological elements which are data, standards, information technology and personnel with expertise. • It is a coordinated approach that moves away from fragmented desktop GIS. • The design of an enterprise GIS includes the construction of a centralized enterprise database that is designed to be the principle resource for an entire organization.
GIS Technology Improvement Migration from Desktop to Web GIS • The traditional, ground water management methods are mainly focused on engineering measures. With the rapid development of information technology, database and GIS technology, the non-engineering measures based on scientific and logical management techniques lead to sustainable development of ground water resources. • This improves the ground water management level and increase work efficiency. Network is a good medium for sharing and spreading information. Using network technology in ground water management not only decrease constructive investment, but also predigest the operation and make it easy to use. • Using the centralized repository based on database and Web GIS technology, different business units can use the Mobile GIS and web GIS application to exchange information and data on network. • Efficient management of groundwater resources relies on a comprehensive database that represents the characteristics of the natural groundwater system as well as analysis and modeling tools to describe the impacts of decision alternatives .
Maturing Groundwater Analysis using Mobile GIS Technology The method of data collection from field is time consuming and susceptible to errors. The recent development in mobile technology has enabled GIS information to be collected from field and update the modification directly to spatial repository in central database. This enables to add real time data to enterprise database and stakeholders can use the latest and more accurate data for analysis and decision making. Wireless connectivity, geo-services, and Web mapping applications allow field-based personnel to complete database transactions in near real time.
Spatial Data Sharing in Groundwater Information System using High Bandwidth 3G Network Field Mobile Users Intranet Web Clients WAN Network 3G Network Internet Web Clients Internet Web Clients 3G Network LAN Network Enterprise Database Department B Desktop Clients Department A GIS Other System
Business Benefits Many Gaps Have Been Bridged with the Help of this Technology Hybrid Technology GIS & IT In Groundwater Management System