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Hybrid GIS Technology for Groundwater Resource Management in India Prabir Kumar Mukherjee. April 2, 2014. Agenda. Introduction. Need for Groundwater Resource Management. GIS in Groundwater Resource Management. Improved Technology - GIT. Business Benefits. Introduction.

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Hybrid gis technology for groundwater resource management in india prabir kumar mukherjee l.jpg

Hybrid GIS Technology for Groundwater Resource Management in IndiaPrabir Kumar Mukherjee

April 2, 2014

Agenda l.jpg
Agenda India


Need for Groundwater Resource Management

GIS in Groundwater Resource Management

Improved Technology - GIT

Business Benefits

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Introduction India

  • Fresh water is a finite and vulnerable resource, essential to sustain life, development and the environment

  • Water development and management should be based on a participatory approach, involving users, planners and policymakers at all levels

  • Women play a central part in the provision, management and safeguarding of water

  • Water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be recognized as an economic good

‘pragmatic but principled approach that

respects the concepts of economic efficiency, social equity and environmental sustainability but recognizes that management can be

intensely political and that reform requires prioritised, sequenced, practical and patient interventions’.

Reference: GWMate Briefing Note

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Need for Groundwater Resource Management India

  • 2000 million people, innumerable farmers and many industrial premises depend on groundwater

  • Accelerated development has resulted in great social and economic benefits, providing low-cost, drought-reliable high-quality water supplies

  • Management and protection of groundwater has been seriously neglected, potentially endangering the resource

  • The sustainability of groundwater is linked to policy issues influencing water and land use, and represents one of the major global challenges in natural resource management

  • There is a need to integrate groundwater and surface water management to ensure better overall water management and allocation

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Need for Groundwater Resource Management India

  • Millions of m3 pumped every year

    • Monitored? Why? Who? How? Use? quantity / quality

  • 100’s of thousands of users

    • Controlled? Registered?

  • 10’s of thousands of wells / boreholes

    • Registered? Maintained? Monitored?

    • Have the information Stored on location, abstraction, water levels, water quality, formation etc.?

  • 1000’s of sources of pollution

    • Location, nature & quantity of pollutants? aquifer vulnerability?

  • 100’s of drillers / consultants

    • Registered? Development & drilling data recorded & submitted?

  • Many governing departments /institutions

    • Joint management ? Coordination / cooperation?

Source (AGW)

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Approaches of Groundwater Resource Management India

Natural Recharge

(excess rainfall, surface water seepage)

Artificial Recharge

(irrigation losses, wastewater returns)

Indirect Recharge

(aquitard leakage, cross-formational flow)

Aquifer Storage

(groundwater resource)


Environmental Benefits

Human Benefits

Economic Benefits

Water for People

Groundwater supply

(drinking water & Sanitation and livelihood)

Water for development

Groundwater abstraction

(agriculture & Industry)

Water for the Environment

Groundwater discharge

(Springs, surface water, wetlands, coastal zone)

Hiscock, 2002

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Water and land use efficient India

Water-users Satisfied

Increasing demand + Contaminant Load

Approaches of Groundwater Resource Management


Without IWRM

Management function

Enabling Environment

Acceptable demand + contaminant load

Water and land-use behaviour worsen

Dissatisfaction of water-users increases

Aquifer system/ groundwater resources impacted

Quality and quantity deteriorated

Policy framework

Regulatory Framework

Aquifer system/ groundwater resources protected

Quality and quantity stabilize

Definition of Water Rights

Decentralised Administrative setup

Unrestricted Demand


Unregulated Resources


Resource Evaluation

Resource Allocation

Pollution control

Economic valuation

Stakeholder Participation

Reliable supply reducing with increasing cost

Secure supply at reasonable cost

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Evolution of GIS in Groundwater Study India

In 1970 - Computer Mapping

During this period most GIS analysis were limited to Manual Processing of spatial data. This period saw computer mapping automate map drafting. The points, lines and areas defining geographic features on a map are represented as an organized set of X, Y coordinates.

In 1980 – Spatial Database Management

Spatial database management systems were developed that linked computer mapping capabilities

with traditional database management capabilities. Increasing demands for mapped data

focused attention on data availability, accuracy and standards, as well as data structure issues.

4D GIS (XYZ and Time)

--Future Perception

Multimedia Mapping

--2000 ‘s

In 1990 - Map Analysis / Modeling

During this period the bulk of descriptive query operations were available in most GIS

systems and attention turned to a comprehensive theory of map analysis. The spatial

information used to represented numerically, rather than in analog way as inked

lines on a map. The GIS applications were now centering towards two forms

spatial statistics and spatial analysis in groundwater study.

In 2000 - Multimedia Mapping

In this period, GIS systems and applications saw new trends like Data Exchange &

Interoperability Standards, Development of Web Services, Enhanced Display

Capabilities, 3D visualization, Integration of Global Positioning System and Remote

Sensing Imagery with GIS in groundwater study.

Future Perceptions

4D GIS (XYZ and time), Tomorrow’s data structures will accommodate time as

a stored dimension and completely change the conventional mapping paradigm.

The future also will build on the cognitive basis, as well as the databases, of

GIS technology. Information systems are at a threshold that is pushing well

beyond mapping, management, modeling, and multimedia to spatial reasoning

and dialogue.

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Sustainability of Planet Earth: India Connections between and achieving balance among social, economic and environmental pieces of a community.

Hybrid Technology/Geospatial Information

Technology (GIT) :

An integration of geo-spatial information

science and technology into a geographic information system (GIS) which has

incredible role in SMART Governance

In groundwater management

Concept - GIS+IT=GIT in Groundwater Resource Management

SMART Governance means:

Process of decision making

in a simple, moral, accountable,

responsive, and transparent manner

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GIS Technology Improvement in Groundwater Resource Management

  • Desktop GIS products offer many advantages including:

  • Advanced capabilities and powerful functionality “out of the box“

  • Internet connectivity is not required

  • Performance is not dependent on bandwidth

  • The disadvantages of traditional desktop applications include:

  • Licensing costs are high on a per user basis compared to web-based GIS

  • PCs with higher specifications are required

  • More advanced user training is required

  • Distributed GIS have all of the system components in the different physical locations. This could be the processing, the database, the rendering or the user interface. Examples of distributed systems are

    • Web-based GIS,

    • Mobile GIS,

    • Enterprise GIS

  • An Enterprise Geographical Information System satisfies the spatial information needs of an organization as a whole in an integrated manner. Enterprise GIS consists of four technological elements which are data, standards, information technology and personnel with expertise.

  • It is a coordinated approach that moves away from fragmented desktop GIS.

  • The design of an enterprise GIS includes the construction of a centralized enterprise database that is designed to be the principle resource for an entire organization.

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GIS Technology Improvement Migration from Desktop to Web GIS Management

  • The traditional, ground water management methods are mainly focused on engineering measures. With the rapid development of information technology, database and GIS technology, the non-engineering measures based on scientific and logical management techniques lead to sustainable development of ground water resources.

  • This improves the ground water management level and increase work efficiency. Network is a good medium for sharing and spreading information. Using network technology in ground water management not only decrease constructive investment, but also predigest the operation and make it easy to use.

  • Using the centralized repository based on database and Web GIS technology, different business units can use the Mobile GIS and web GIS application to exchange information and data on network.

  • Efficient management of groundwater resources relies on a comprehensive database that represents the characteristics of the natural groundwater system as well as analysis and modeling tools to describe the impacts of decision alternatives .

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Maturing Groundwater Analysis using Mobile GIS Technology Management

The method of data collection from field is time consuming and susceptible to errors. The recent development in mobile technology has enabled GIS information to be collected from field and update the modification directly to spatial repository in central database. This enables to add real time data to enterprise database and stakeholders can use the latest and more accurate data for analysis and decision making. Wireless connectivity, geo-services, and Web mapping applications allow field-based personnel to complete database transactions in near real time.

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Spatial Data Sharing in Groundwater Information System using High Bandwidth 3G Network

Field Mobile Users

Intranet Web Clients

WAN Network

3G Network

Internet Web Clients

Internet Web Clients

3G Network

LAN Network

Enterprise Database

Department B

Desktop Clients

Department A


Other System

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Business Benefits High Bandwidth 3G Network

Many Gaps Have Been Bridged with the Help of this Technology

Hybrid Technology


In Groundwater

Management System

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Thank You High Bandwidth 3G Network