Hungary/Magyarország/Ungarn/VengrijaA short introduction • Geographic situation: In central Europe, the Carpathian basin • Population: 10 million • Capital: Budapest, 2 mill. • Ageing, declining population (-14000/year) • Age structure: under 14 :15,3%, 15-64: 69,3%, above 65: 15,4% • Administrative state: 19 countys + Budapest
Printed press in Hungary • Tipization of written press products: • By they’re content (political, economical, bulvar, etc.) • By they’re target group (female, male, family, teen, etc.) • Geographically (state-wide, county-wide, local) • Time between appeaarance (daily, weekly, monthly)
Interesting characteristics of printed press, and media in general • Socialist past socialist attitudes: strong connections between politics and journalism • Readership of newspapers average compared to Europe • Monopol situation of county newspapers • Minimal coverage of foreign and international affairs, focus on inner politics/happenings
Current market situation • The market is changing, mainly because of the Internet • 1,329 Billion copies of press products published in 2006 • The number of different press products is decreasing since 2004
Current market situationDaily magazines • The sold copy number of state-wide dailys is decreasing constatnly - especially political/public life themed newspapers • Bulvar/entertainment themed ones are doing better - but there’s oversupply on this market! • Local/county-wide newspaper sales didn’t decrease signifficantly • How state-wide are the state wide papers?
Current market situationWeekly magazines • Also a shrinking market • Bulvar/entertainment is the most profitable • „Quality” magazines are adopting to this • Less text, more/bigger pictures/ads, other editing „tricks” to save money • From the top 10 sellers: 3 Radio/Tv programme magazines, 2 entertainement/lifestyle/bulvar for women, 3 other bulvar/entertainment, 2 about politics/economics
Current market situationMonthly papers, magazines, etc • Shrinking demand on this market too • Top 10 sellers include: 3 mags for girls/teens, 2 crossword puzzle mags, 2 lifestyle for women, 2 lifestyle/houses
What am I talking about? =80 >300 >100 >300 =150 >100 >80 !!!
Weekly & Mags >300 =130 >130 =250 >70 =280 =80 =110 >65
The publishers-market leaders Ringier: (Switzerland) • Less papers than AS, but leader in segments sport, politics, bulvar/entertainment • Brands: Axel-Springer: • Strong outside Budapest, in the countys • Has the most county newspapers • Very diverse and big portfolio • Brands:
Smaller publishers Sanoma Budapest: • Market leader in the weekly segment • Story, Nők Lapja, FHM, Cosmo Modern Times Group • Metropol (Metro) free daily paper
The future? • Will internet kill the papers?- digital and printed contents can make a good team- Blikk.hu, storyonline • Future content – More soap, drama & celebrities, or more serious talk? • Future journalism- more qualifyed reporters, who break free of the politicians influence, or does it get worse?
Fact&Figures and opinions about TV in Hungary • Most important source of news • In 100 households 148 tvs2007, TV in 99% of households • 1/5 of the population doesn’t have cable->only 3 channels • Rest: • Preferred shows by hungarian population: • Films, documentaries, amusment shows, quiz shows • Need for more quality shows in primetime, lack of international culture Szonda Ipsos 2006 (quantitativ and qualitativ) and KSH (=Hungarian Central Statistical Office) statistics
Number of TV channels/household Szonda Ipsos Research 2006
TV Channels in Hungary Mostly for hungarian minorities abroad
MTV – Magyar Televízió „Broadcasts value” • Since 1954 • New image in 2006 – ethnic motives&modernity • Smaller and smaller audience – boring??? • More and more hungarian speaking channels on the market • Rather unpopular in the age of 18-49 • No quality, no fun, no family • More audience among people with university degree • BUT:most trustful, objective, support of minorities • Future: HD Quality • MTV new image • MTV new HD image
Evaluation of MTV Szonda Ipsos 2006
RTL Klub • Market leader • Bertelsmann – german company • RTL, VOX, Premiere • HUN - Népszabadság, RTL Klub • Long-term thinking • Hungarian GZSZ=Barátok közt • Sport (Formula1, Football) • Future: HD, new channels • For women, for teenagers like in Germany • Waiting for changing the law • Dirk Gerkens, CEO – most influence in the media(Marketing&Media magazin)
TV2 • Ownership: • ProSiebenSat.1 • Pro7, Sat1, N24, Kabel1 • Main competitor of RTL Klub, but with a bit different portfolio, more attention to women’s taste
Prognose HD TV – higher quality More hungarian-speaking, tematic and public channels Individual TV Till 2012 Support from the state? Online tv (Readon, serials in USA, index)
MTV versus MTV • The same name for both channels • (hun)MTV turned to court against MTV music • Arguments of hun MTV: • MTV=hungarian national chanell since decades • Delusion of customers • The 2 channels have nothing in common (quality, values) • MTV, music channel won in the first round
Advertising • Income of private channels • Public tvs also get state support • 40,8% from the advertising budget2006 • Crisis, decreased incomes from ad. • On tematic channels tematic ads • Usually louder, than the normal shows • Time for advertisments in one hour • public: 6 minutes • Private: 12 minutes
A life without advertisments? Utopia The longer the best
The Telefon Hírmondó (Telephone Herald ) was founded by Tivadar Puskás (also translated as Theodore Buschgasch) 15th February1893, with around 60 subscribers office was located near Astoria first message from Puskás was… History of broadcasting
„We greet the inhabitants of Budapest. We greet them in an unusual way from which telephone broadcasting all over the world will start its victorious journey.” • "A new method of organizing and fitting a telephone newspaper „ • Telefon Hírmondó had no wires of its own, the company built up a network independent of the telephones lines used for conversation • It divided the entire city of Budapest into twenty-seven districts • (69 km) of wire, (1,800 km) in 1907 • It collected the news using the methods commonly employed by the print newspapers. The reporter would write the matter and submit it to the chief, who would sign it to fix responsibility • The complete programme of the newspaper would be attached to the wall above each subscribers's receiver, telling the subscriber what to expect at an hour • The "newspaper issue" would begin with a news bulletin and with summaries of newspapers. The afternoon schedule comprised "short entertaining stories", "sporting intelligence„ and the evening schedule consisted of theatrical offerings, visits to the opera, poetry readings, concerts, lectures and linguistic lessons (in English, Italian and French)
Hard times • Number of subscribers was less than 10 thousand • In 1923 the 80-90% of lines were damaged in a big snow storm • During the World War II. the Telephone Herald was used for political propaganda goals and for instance it broadcasted some of Hitler's speeches in live • In November 1944 when the Germans escaped from Hungary they burned all the radio transmitters and the broadcast started again only in May 1945
Magyar Rádió (MR, The Hungarian Radio Corporation) is Hungary's publicly funded radio broadcasting organization 1925 and 1993 With its headquarters in Budapest and several regional offices is responsible for public service broadcasting throughout the Hungarian Republic The corporation produces three nationwide Hungarian-language radio channels (MR1-Kossuth, MR2-Petőfi, and MR3-Bartók) covering the full range of public-service radio provision, a fourth channel (MR4) aimed at the country's linguistic minorities, (MR5) is a parliamentarian broadcast, while (MR6) provides regional broadcast in the studios of following cities: Debrecen, Pécs, Szolnok, Szeged, Miskolc, Győr
Commercial sector I. • In 1986 Danubius Radio started to broadcast exclusively in German for the tourists visiting Hungary • Juventus Radio dates back to 1988 when some entrepreneurs took out a permit to creat a local channel. This radio station acclimatized in Hungary the aggressive- commercial-based approach of broadcasting after the American example. Music (which was for the first time selected by the potential audience) provides an example for the comtemporary commercial radio stations as well In 1991 the first prohibited, so-called- pirate radio, Tilos started to spread the word mainly in the underground genre because it didn’t get legal frequency • Since 2002 it is possible to hear them only on the Internet and ‘cable-air’
Media law from1996 created the possibility to establish commercial radios freely and as a result in 1998 two new participants appeared on the market: the Danubius Radio, and the Sláger Radio The owner of Danubius is the british Great West Radio and the Hungarian Wallis PLC., while Sláger’s main owners are the US company Emmis Broadcasting International Broadcasting Corporation and Credit Suisse First Boston Media Company Competition in radio market is severe compete for audiences age is a characteristic division line Commercial sector II.
The market shares of the two major national commercial radios are about the same, with both Danubius and Sláger listened to by about 25 percent of 15+ audiences. Competition for audiences and advertising revenue among radios can be extremely strong, especially in a crowded market like Budapest. • Nowadays operate approx. 120 local radio station in the country. Most of them have similar image and are linked to a county or region network. The big cities generally possess 4-5 local radio stations while the small towns one or two.
Composition of audience per settlement-type (2007, weekly listening, %) Resource: Szonda Ipsos - GfK Hungária: National listening measurement, RádióNavigátor
Time was spent with listening to radio Resource: Szonda Ipsos - GfK Hungária: National listening measurement, RádióNavigátor
Audience share for 15 minutes (average on weekdays, per 1000 people ) Resource: Szonda Ipsos - GfK Hungária: National listening measurement, RádióNavigátor
Place for listening to radio Resource: Szonda Ipsos - GfK Hungária: National listening measurement, RádióNavigátor
Act I. of National Parliament on radio and television broadcasting took effect on 1st February 1996 The Act established the National Radio and Television Commission (Országos Rádió és Televízió Testület = ORTT) ORTT is an independent authority for the monitoring and control of radio and television broadcasters Members of the Commission were elected for four-year periods in 1996, 2000 and 2004 on a parity basis by the agreement of political parties with Parliamentary representation Currently it has six members, headed by the President who is nominated by the President of the Republic and the Prime Minister Since 29th March 2004, Mr. György Kovács has filled the position of the President of ORTT National Radio and Television Commission
Its operation is supported by the administrative staff (Commission Office). The press and online media do not have separate supervisory organizations (the case to court) Broadcasting content and ownership in electronic media are regulated by the Media Law and ORTT ORTT also has a commission for dealing with complaints from viewers The Media Law also imposes restrictions on ownership, but only for audiovisual media, not the press Construction & Legal background
Basic functions and international relations ♦ puts forth its opinion on the draft regulations on frequency management and telecommunication, ♦ performs the functions related to the broadcasting agreements, ♦ puts forward resolutions and suggestions for the principles of the development of the Hungarian broadcasting system ♦ establishes and publishes the distribution and satellite transmission tariffs, ♦ publishes its concept concerning broadcasting-related frequency management in the Cultural Gazette, etc. The National Radio and Television Commission follows the international events and trends relevant for the electronic media sector. It pays special attention to its co-operation with institutions of the European Union and with the European Platform of Regulatory Authorities (EPRA)
The main professional organisation for journalists is MÚOSZ, the National Association of Journalists Other smallers were founded as alternatives to MÚOSZ by Catholic journalists (MAKÚSZ = Hungarian Catholic Association of Press) and conservative journalists (MÚK), as well as sports reporters (MSÚSZ). Newpaper publishers, including proprietors and employers formed the Association of Hungarian Newspaper Publishers (MLE) while Online media set up the Association of Hungarian Content Providers (MTE)in 2001 The Association of Hungarian Electronic Broadcasters (MEME) incorporates the largest radios and televisions Journalist organizations
The Association of Hungarian Content Providers (MTE) • A self-regulating body was founded in 2001 by Hungarian internet content providers - including Index and [origo] – in order to be able to participate in the development of the Hungarian Internet business market with verified and professionally supported committments, and with the tools of self-regulation • It is a certain effort of MTE to achieve that the Internet be regulated with the smallest state intervention possible that is why it created the professional code of internet content providing, and the code of ethics