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Mammals - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Mammals. Class Mammalia. Includes 4000 species Most dominant land animals on earth. Two identifying characteristics: Hair/fur Mammary glands which produce milk. Origin. Fossil skeletons show that early mammals had large eye sockets, which may have meant that they were active at night.

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class mammalia
Class Mammalia
  • Includes 4000 species
  • Most dominant land animals on earth.
  • Two identifying characteristics:
    • Hair/fur
    • Mammary glands which produce milk
origin
Origin

Fossil skeletons show that early mammals had large eye sockets, which may have meant that they were active at night.

Mammals did not compete with dinosaurs for food, for the would feed on insects.

origin1
Origin

Mammals were not abundant during the Mesozoic era.

Fossils of the first mammals are scarce thus indicating that they were not as abundant.

The Cenozoic era is named the age of mammals, for this is the time which mammals rapidly started to increase

evolution
Evolution

•Animals evolved from the group of reptiles called Therapids.

•Therapids have both reptilian and mammalian characteristics.

•Therapids have a jaw bone composed of 5 bones rather than a simple jaw bone.

.

evolution1
Evolution

•Like mammals, Therapids have specialized teeth adapted for specialized functions.

•The earliest mammalian fossil found is from the early Mesozoic era, 200 million years ago

characteristics of mammals
Characteristics of Mammals
  • Endothermic
  • Well-developed brains
characteristics of mammals1
Characteristics of Mammals
  • Heart has 4 chambers
  • Diaphragm (muscle) aids in breathing
characteristics
Characteristics
  • Mammals have single lower jaw
  • Most species have 4 different types of teeth: Incisors, canines, cuspids, and bicuspids
  • Various types of teeth for different diets
characteristics1
Characteristics
  • Mostly viviparous (live birth)
  • Females secrete milk from mammary glands to feed newborn young.
distinguishing features
Distinguishing Features

Two features distinguish them from other invertebrates: hair and production of milk.

class mammalia1
Class Mammalia
  • Subclass Prototheria- extinct mammals with unique skull structure
  • Subclass Theria- Living mammals distinguished by skull
    • Infraclass Ornithodelphia- Monotremes
    • Infraclass Metatheria- Marsupials
    • Infraclass Eutheria- Placentals
order monotremata
Order Monotremata
  • Oviparous or egg laying mammals
  • Only 3 in existence
  • Duck-billed platypus and two species of spiny anteaters called echidna.
  • Not completely endothermic (their body temperature is lower and fluctuates more than other mammals)
  • Mammae without nipples
  • Edentulous as adults
  • Limbs modified for

swimming or digging

  • Australia and New Guinea
duck billed platypus ornithorhynchus anatinus
Duck-Billed PlatypusOrnithorhynchus anatinus
  • Only member of the mammal family Ornithorhynchidae
  • Greek platys meaning broad and pous meaning foot
  • Several reptilian characteristics: same opening for reproduction and eliminating waste products, the ability to lay eggs
  • The world's only venomous furred animal
    • Spur on hind foot
    • Females loose after one year
  • Bill contains an electro-receptor system
echidna spiny anteater tachyglossus aculeatus
Echidna (Spiny Anteater)Tachyglossus aculeatus
  • "Echidna" derives from the Latin word for "viper”
    • Tongue protrudes like a snake
  • Nocturnal
  • Terrestrial and burrowing
  • Females normally lay only one egg
monotremata
Monotremata

Duck-billed platypus

Spiny anteater

infraclass metatheria marsupials
Infraclass Metatheria(Marsupials)
  • Old classification placed all marsupials in a single order
  • More recent classifications have recognized the diversity and radiation of Marsupials
  • Marsupials now separated into seven orders
  • Range, North America, Central America, South America, Australia, New Guinea, adjacent islands
subclass theria infraclass metatheria marsupialia
Subclass TheriaInfraclass Metatheria (Marsupialia)

Order Didelphimorphia OpossumsOrder Paucituberculata Rat OpossumsOrder Microbiotheria Monito del monteOrder Dasyuromorphia Thylacines, numbats,

dasyuresOrder Peramelemorphia BandicootsOrder Notoryctemorphia Marsupial moleOrder Diprotodontia Koalas, wombats,

kangaroos, etc

250 species of marsupial species exist in australia new guinea tasmania and the americas
250 species of marsupial species exist in Australia, New Guinea, Tasmania, And the Americas
  • .

Tasmanian Devil

marsupials
Marsupials
  • Give birth to tiny immature young that crawl to a pouch on the mothers belly immediately after they are born.
    • Marsupium- Fold of skin protecting nipples
slide21

They attach themselves to milk secreting nipples nursing until they are mature enough to survive outside the pouch.

american marsupial
American Marsupial

Order Didelphimorphia- Opossum

order dasyuromorphia
Order Dasyuromorphia
  • Thylacine
  • Numbat

Dasyure

order diprotodontia
Order Diprotodontia

Wombats

Kangaroos

characteristics of placentals
Characteristics of Placentals
  • 95% of all mammals
  • Carry unborn young in the uterus until young can survive in the wild.
  • Oxygen and nutrients are transferred from mother’s blood to baby’s blood
placental characteristics
Placental Characteristics
  • The placenta is a membrane providing nutrients and waste & gas exchange between the mother and developing young
  • Gestation period-is the time which mammals develop in mother’s uterus
mammals are a diverse group living on land and in water some mammals can fly
Mammals are a diverse group living on land and in water. Some mammals can fly!

Malaysian Fruit Bat

order insectivora
Order Insectivora
  • Consists of 400 species
  • Includes shrews and moles

Shrew

Mole

order insectivora1
Order Insectivora
  • Small animals with high metabolic rate and found in North America, Europe, and Asia.
  • Most have long pointed noses that enable them to grub for insects, worms, and invertebrates.
  • Live on ground, trees, in water, and underground.
order rodentia
Order Rodentia
  • Largest mammalian order having over 2,400 species.
  • On every continent except for Antarctica
  • Includes squirrels, marmots, chipmunks, gophers, muskrats, mice, rats, and porcupines.

Chipmunk

slide37

Marmot

Porcupine

Squirrel

order lagomorpha
Order Lagomorpha
  • Includes rabbits, hares, and small mountain mammals called pikas.
  • Found worldwide
  • Warrens- families of rabbits

Hare

Pika

rabbits vs hares
Rabbits vs. Hares
  • Rabbits are smaller and slower
  • Shorter ears and hind legs with smaller feet
  • Solid colored fur
  • A young rabbit is a bunny
  • Altricial
  • Hares are generally larger and faster
  • Hares have longer ears, longer hind legs, and larger feet
  • Hares have black markings on their fur
  • A young hare is called a leveret
  • Precocial
order lagomorpha1
Order Lagomorpha

Double row of incisors, large front teeth backed with two smaller ones, adaptation for herbivorous diet.

order edentata xenarthra
Order Edentata/Xenarthra
  • Made up of 30 living species including anteaters, armadillos, and sloths.
  • The name edentate means “without teeth”
  • Those with teeth have single root with teeth and no enamel
slide43

Anteater

Sloths

slide44

Edentates have adaptations for insectivorous diets, including a long, sticky tongue and clawed front paws

Anteater feeding at a Termite mound

chiroptera
Chiroptera
  • Made up of over 900 species of bats
  • Live throughout the world except in polar environments
slide47

A bat’s wing is modified front limb which skin membrane between extremely long finger bones

  • Bats use thumbs for climbing, walking, or grasping
order chiroptera
Order Chiroptera
  • Most bats are active at night and have a special way to navigate using echolocation (bouncing off high-frequency sound waves)
  • Frequency of returning sound waves with the size, distance, and rate of movement of different objects
order chiroptera1
Order Chiroptera
  • Bats that use echolocation have small eyes and large ears.
  • Feed on insects and have teeth specialized for such diets
slide50

Some feed on fruit and flower nectar and do not use echolocation.

  • These bats are sometimes called flying foxes, have large eyes and keen sense of smell.
orders cetacea and sirenia
Orders Cetacea and Sirenia
  • 90 species of whales, dolphins, and porpoises are distributed worldwide.
  • Cetaceans have fishlike bodies with forelimbs modified as flippers.
slide52

Cetaceans divided into two groups which are toothed whales and baleen whales.

  • Toothed whales include beaked whales, sperm whales, beluga whales, narwhals, killer whales, dolphins and porpoises.
  • Blue whales largest animal in world ~ 100 tons
slide53

Have over 100 teeth

  • Prey on fish, squid, seals and whales
slide54

Baleen whales lack teeth

  • Baleen-thin plates of finger like material for filtering food from water
  • Shrimp and other small invertebrates are the prey of the baleen whales.
slide56

Front limbs are flippers for swimming

  • Sirenians lack hind legs but have flattened tails.
order carnivora
Order Carnivora
  • 250 living species in carnivoria are distributed worldwide
  • Most of the species mainly eat meat, which explains the name.
  • About 34 species: Canids, felids, bears, raccoons, minks, sea lions, seals, walruses, and otters
slide58

Some members of this order such as bears feed extensively on plant material as well as meat, so they are called omnivores.

  • Carnivores generally have long canine teeth, strong jaws, clawed toes.
  • Highly developed sense of smell and a large braincase
suborder pinnipedia
Suborder Pinnipedia
  • Pinnipedia are water dwelling carnivores and have streamlined bodies
  • Sea lions (ear flaps), seals (no ear flaps) and walruses (elongated canines)
orders artiodactyla and perissodactyla
Orders Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla
  • Ungulates-hoofed mammals
  • These two classes are herbivores.
    • Mostly grazers/browsers
  • Ruminants- four chambered stomach
  • The first three chambers are for storage (rumen), use cellulase (digestive enzyme) to aid in breakdown of cellulose
    • “Chewing the cud”
      • Regurgitate, chew again, and undergoes double digestion.
order artiodactyla
Order Artiodactyla
  • Ungulates with an even amount of toes
  • Pigs, hippos, camels, antelope, deer, sheep, giraffes, cattle
order perissodactyla
Order Perissodactyla

- Ungulates with an odd number of toes

- Horses, rhinos, zebras, and tapirs

order proboscidea
Order Proboscidea
  • Characterized by a boneless nose or proboscis
  • Elephants are the largest land dwellers alive today, weighing more than 6 tons.
    • African (largest land mammal) and Indian/Asian species
order primates
Order Primates
  • 200 living species of primates classified as prosimians.
  • Including lemurs, tarsiers, monkeys, gibbons, and great apes
slide66

Omnivorous diets

  • Unspecialized teeth
  • Grasping digits with free-moving limbs
  • Finger and toenails
  • A complex brain has enabled anthropoids to develop behaviors and to live in highly organized social groups.
    • Ex: Troop- chimpanzee groups