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Weather Systems & Cloud Types. Air Masses. Bodies of air that bring distinctive weather features to the country. A mass of air in air that is very uniform in temperature, pressure, and humidity. Polar = cold Tropical = warm Maritime = moist Continental = dry.

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Weather systems cloud types

Weather Systems &Cloud Types


Air masses
Air Masses

  • Bodies of air that bring distinctive weather features to the country.

  • A mass of air in air that is very uniform in temperature, pressure, and humidity.

    • Polar = cold

    • Tropical = warm

    • Maritime = moistContinental = dry


Air masses layers of atmosphere
Air Masses & Layers of Atmosphere

  • May cover several millions of square kilometers and extend vertically throughout the troposphere


Pressure of air masses
Pressure of Air Masses

  • Air Pressure = weight of air acting on an area

  • Warm Air has more KE and spreads out more.

  • Therefore, it’s less dense and has less weight .

  • This means less pressure.

  • Cold Air has less KE and spreads out less.

  • Therefore, it’s more dense and has more weight .

  • This means more pressure.


Pressure systems
Pressure Systems

  • Uneven heating of the Earth’s surface causes differences in air pressure

    • Warm Air  Low Pressure System

    • Cold Air  High Pressure System

  • WarmAir Masses have high KE, spread out,

  • are less dense, and have LOWPressure.

  • The warm air evaporates water. It has high humidity Storms

  • ColdAir Masses have less KE, sink together,

  • are more dense, and have HIGH Pressure.

  • The cold air can’t evaporate water. It has low humidity Dry air


Weather map fronts systems jet stream
Weather Map: Fronts, Systems, Jet stream


Weather fronts
Weather Fronts

A front is the transition zone between

two air masses of different density.

Fronts extend not only in the horizontal direction,

but in the vertical as well.







Wind patterns
Wind Patterns

  • Air flows from areas of high pressure into those of low pressure

  • Northern Hemisphere: air flow from areas of high to low pressure is deflected to the right; producing a clockwise circulation around an area of High pressure.

  • Counter-clockwise circulation around an area of Low pressure.



Weather forecasting
Weather Forecasting

  • Tools Used:

    • Thermometer (temperature)

    • Barometer (pressure)

    • Hygrometer (humidity)

    • Radar (storm & cloud movement)

    • Satellite imagery (storm & cloud movement)

  • National Weather Service Boise Site:

  • http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/boi/

  • Weather Channel Site:

  • http://www.weather.com/



Climate
Climate

  • Average of all weather conditions in area over a long time

    • Ex: temperature, precipitation

  • Climate is cyclically influenced by ocean currents & temperatures

    • El Niño & La Niña

  • These variations alter:

    • surface wind

    • surface ocean temperatures

    • deep ocean temperatures


Climate cycles
Climate Cycles

  • Caused by variations in ocean currents & temperatures

    • Cycles occur every 3-7 years

    • El Niño: characterized by unusually warm ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific

    • La Niña: characterized by unusually coldocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific


Normal vs el ni o ocean temperatures
Normal vs. El Niño Ocean Temperatures

Unusually warm ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific

Winters are warmer than normal in the Northern States &

cooler than normal in the Southern States


Normal vs la ni a ocean temperatures
Normal vs. La NiñaOcean Temperatures

Unusually cold ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific

Winters are cooler than normal in the Northwest &

warmer than normal in the Southeast


Cloud characterization
Cloud Characterization

  • Clouds are characterized by:

    • Height above the ground

      • Cirro

      • Alto

      • Nimbo

    • Type of cloud

      • Cirrus

      • Cumulus

      • Stratus – any cloud type can form layers