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. Arguments. Arguments. To Simplify All S are P. a is S. Therefore , a is P. Arguments. If I do not wake up, then I cannot go to work. If I cannot go to work, then I will not get paid. Therefore , if I do not wake up, then I will not get paid. Arguments. To Simplify P → Q.
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Arguments To Simplify All S are P. a is S. Therefore, ais P.
Arguments If I do not wake up, then I cannot go to work. If I cannot go to work, then I will not get paid. Therefore, if I do not wake up, then I will not get paid.
Arguments To Simplify P → Q. Q → R. Therefore, P → R. P Q R
Arguments My dog has spots. A dog is an animal. Therefore, all animals have spots.
Arguments J. Jones lost 50 lbs on the Superfly Diet. You are on the Superfly Diet. Therefore, you will lose 50 lbs. False analogies are very prevalent in advertising.
Arguments What is the author trying to do?
Arguments Bias is the agenda that an author has. • What is the point that they are trying to prove? • Are they trying to convince you of something?
Arguments Biased-opinion Unbiased-fact • I think that I am the best candidate for President. • The police in Bakersfield should be allowed to wear shorts. • Changing the helmet law was stupid because motorcycles are dangerous. • I am running for President. • In Bakersfield, the temperature commonly exceeds 90 degrees. • Over 4,000 people died in motorcycle accidents in the US in 2009.
Arguments Effective arguments are biased BUT they need to be backed up by fact. • The police in Bakersfield should be allowed to wear shorts because the temperature commonly goes above 90 degrees. • The police in Bakersfield should be allowed to wear shorts because they'll look nicer than in pants.
Arguments • The police in Bakersfield should not be allowed to wear shorts because not having pant legs makes them more susceptible to injury. • The police in Bakersfield should not be allowed to wear shorts because they aren’t allowed to wear sandals.
Arguments Beware of False Arguments!
Hasty Generalization • Using too small of a sample. • Sigmund is riding his bike in Bakersfield. A SUV comes up flying up behind him and the driver starts beeping his horn. Then, he tries to force Sigmund off the road! As he goes by, the driver yells "get on the sidewalk where you belong!" Sigmund sees that the car has Florida plates and concludes that all Florida drivers are jerks.
Red Herring AKA Changing the subject, misdirection, false emphasis used to avoid having to defend a claim, or making good on a promise. You are not supposed to notice that there is hoopla going on. Your income taxes have been cut by 10%. However, sales tax has risen 17%.
Begging the question AKA Tautology reasoning in a circle. The thing to be proved is used as an assumption. • Suppose Miss Pie is not lying when she talks. • Miss Pie is speaking. • Therefore, Miss Pie is telling the truth.
Stacking the evidence Ignore the other side of the argument The magician could not read minds because there were unbelievers in the audience.
Straw Man Attacking an exaggerated or caricatured version of your opponent's position. You don’t support medical testing on animals, so you think it’s okay for people to get sick.
Misunderstanding Statistics The president was alarmed to discover fully half of all Americans had below average intelligence. Your doctor wasn’t in the top half of his class, so he must be bad.
Non Sequiter AKA “Say what?” Something that just does not follow. Tens of thousands of Americans have seen lights in the night sky which they could not identify. The existence of life on other planets is fast becoming certainty! I saw Jane driving a Jaguar, so she must be rich.
Slippery Slope AKA Horse Nose-If you allow a horse to poke his nose into the tent, soon the whole horse will follow. Something is wrong because it could lead towards something else wrong. If it is legal to drive at 12, then more kids will get into accidents.
Post hoc ergo propter hoc Confusing cause and effect Rooster Syndrome: giving credit to the chicken for the sunrise The rate of x is rising because of the decrease in y.
Cum hoc ergo propter hoc interpreting correlation as causation Welfare obviously causes child poverty because states with higher welfare rates have more poor children. Children who are taller have better handwriting. Therefore, height is a measure of academic success.
Ad Hominem AKA Argument To The Man attacking the person instead of attacking his argument Ben Franklin’s inventions are worthless because he wrote a book called, Fart Proudly. You can't believe Jack about the accident, because he doesn't even have a job.
Either or Argument You either are for Representative Johnson or for raising taxes. My way or the highway!
Arguments • Effective arguments are geared toward one specific agenda. • Arguments are constructed of both fact and opinion. • The argument is the main idea with a bias. • Arguments seek to convince you of something, in reading, writing, and in real life.
Storyboard • 9 modes and 3 appeals