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SPECIFIC DEFENSES: THE IMMUNE RESPONSE. Introduction: Innate Resistance. IMMUNITY: Genetic or Acquired; Active or Passive. NATURALLY ACQUIRED ACTIVE. ARTIFICIALLY ACQUIRED ACTIVE. NATURALLY ACQUIRED PASSIVE. ARTIFICIALLY ACQUIRED PASSIVE. NATURALLY ACQUIRED ACTIVE IMMUNITY.

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specific defenses the immune response

SPECIFIC DEFENSES: THE IMMUNE RESPONSE.

Introduction:

Innate Resistance.

immunity genetic or acquired active or passive
IMMUNITY: Genetic or Acquired; Active or Passive.
  • NATURALLY ACQUIRED ACTIVE.
  • ARTIFICIALLY ACQUIRED ACTIVE.
  • NATURALLY ACQUIRED PASSIVE.
  • ARTIFICIALLY ACQUIRED PASSIVE.
naturally acquired active immunity
NATURALLY ACQUIRED ACTIVE IMMUNITY
  • Person contracts disease; manufactures antibodies.
  • Immunity is long-term.
  • E.G. Measles and Chicken pox.
artificially acquired active immunity
ARTIFICIALLY ACQUIRED ACTIVE IMMUNITY.
  • Person is vaccinated.
  • Produces own antibodies.
  • Immunity lasts for months or years.
  • E.G. Polio, Pertussis.
naturally acquired passive immunity
NATURALLY ACQUIRED PASSIVE IMMUNITY.
  • Mother’s antibodies pass to infant(Colostrum).
  • Transplacental transfer.
  • Short-term or temporary.
artificially acquired passive immunity
ARTIFICIALLY ACQUIRED PASSIVE IMMUNITY.
  • Immune serums containing antibodies are injected.
  • Immunity is immediate, but short-term.
  • Antiserum.
  • Serology.
immune system 3rd line of defense
IMMUNE SYSTEM: 3RD LINE OF DEFENSE.
  • HUMORAL(ANTIBODY-MEDIATED).
  • CELL-MEDIATED.
lymphocytes b
LYMPHOCYTES:B.
  • React and recognize small organisms- bacteria and viruses.
  • Produce antibodies.
  • Produced in the bone marrow and matures in the bone marrow, and reside in the lymphoid organs, blood, and connective tissue.
  • Constitute the humoral immunity.
lymphocytes t
LYMPHOCYTES: T.
  • React to body cells gone bad(cancers, infected cells, fungi, parasites, transplants).
  • Made in the bone marrow, but matures in the thymus.
  • After maturation, migrate to lymph nodes, spleen, and liver.
antigens
ANTIGENS.
  • Either proteins or large polysaccharides.
  • Often components of invading microbes e.g capsules, fimbriae, cell walls, toxins, viral coats, pollen, egg white, blood cell surface molecules etc, transplanted tissues and organs.
  • Stimulate the production and maturation of 2 types of lymphocytes(T and B).
antigenic determinants or epitopes
ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS OR EPITOPES.
  • Regions on the bacterial cell wall (antigen), antibodies recognize and interact with.
  • Nature of interaction depends on size, shape, and chemical nature of the epitope.
haptens e g penicillin
HAPTENS: E.G PENICILLIN.
  • Molecules too small to stimulate antibody formation on their own.
  • But when combined with a larger carrier molecule(serum) fonction as antigen and stimulate response
humoral antibody mediated immunity
HUMORAL(ANTIBODY)-MEDIATED IMMUNITY.
  • Involves production of antibodies.
  • B cells are key players.
  • Defends primarily against microbes circulating freely in the body’s fluids.
antibodies structure and function
ANTIBODIES: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION.
  • Proteins made in response