Chapter 1 Questioning Development. What is Development?. · A working out, a gradual unfolding · Growth plus change, evolution, well-gown state, stage of advancement · Upward movement of an entire social system · Per capita real income
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· A working out, a gradual unfolding
· Growth plus change, evolution, well-gown state, stage of advancement
· Upward movement of an entire social system
· Per capita real income
· Development area – one suffering from or liable to serve unemployment
· Development is a means – as an instrumental process for overcoming persistent poverty and achieving human development
· Development is ultimately about improving the life chances of people
· “Economic development should be interpreted as a process of expansion of the positive freedom that people enjoy…….it is a process that expands the entitlements and capabilities of people to live in ways we have reason to value.” - Amartya Sens, Nobel Laureate.
· Many different ideas! Affects everyone from the individual to the global.
U.S. President Truman in 1949 - Made reference to “Underdeveloped areas” (Duty to develop these areas)
Began to establish a new colonial or neocolonial role for the U.S.A. for these newly independent countries.
· Guided by Modernism + Trusteeship
Modernism – Idea of transforming traditional countries into modern western states
Trusteeship – Holding another’s property with the belief that the trustee is able to look after it better than the owner of the property, until a certain time in the future.Some Histories of Development
Rationalism + Humanism gave rise to Enlightenment through the 18th century
Enlightenment – Based on scientific and rational thinking. Rise of a secular intelligencia. Orderly progress and new freedoms.Enlightenment Approach
Eurocentrism has distorted development and its patterns and processes through their pseudoscientific rational and reasoning.
All major strategies are Eurocentric in origin and in bias. So, everything from modernism through neo-Marxism to the neo-liberal counter culture. All of these ideas originated in Europe.
Captalist Driven and seen as a meta – narrative or universal in their assumptions.Critiques of Development
Locally oriented, idea of “development from below” strategies. Used in rural peasant based societies. People oriented and heavily community based.
Shelter, education, and health care. NGOs play a big part in community development and empowering the poor.
Criticisms of the NGOS is that they are moving away from the communities and becoming more of a bridge to the state. The NGO is also disempowering the community members by bypassing the more outspoken members of the community.Critiques of Development
Based on the failures of modernism
Argued that West developed discourse around development leads to an uneven power relationship
Western “development” helped to create poverty,underdevelopment, backwardness, landlessness and so on
Western society then rushed to solves these problems via programs that fail to recognize/respect local culture and customsCritiques of Development
1930s-1950s - The Idea of a “Third World” Emerging
· Rise of the New Right with Ronald Regan being elected in the U.S.A. and Margaret Thatcher in Great Britain.
· The report, “North-South: A Program for Survival” written by the Brandt Commission was released in 1980.
-Seen as visionary
-Argued a much more balanced equitable system between the North
-Put Greater responsibilities on TNCs to create greater equity within countries that they operated in.
Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, 1969-1974
· Problem – North-South division was not explained. The model was also competing against the core – periphery model – semi periphery model developed by Wallerstein
· However, Norwine and Gonzalez compare the Third World to a Brazilian Rainforest such that it is very diverse as well, but it is still a recognizable entity.
· The one thing that still unites all of these countries is the grinding poverty with seemingly no escape.
However, even if targets are met by 2015, 900,000 million people will still be living in poverty
MDGs will be most helpful in achieving poverty reduction if they are chosen well in the sense of being:
· -Familiar to the main actors and stakeholders
· -Readily monitored
· -SMART (Specific, Measurable Achievable, Relevant, and Time-bound), as commonly required of targets set in business and public administration.
* Success of MDG=Need specific targets and outcomes, leadership, and $$$
PRSP Process – Grassroots Consultative Session with the Local Community Regarding Agriculture (Tanzania)
-Various causes of income poverty, especially in the agricultural sector, were identified,
¨ Poor working tools and technology (highlighted by over one-third of the groups involved
in the workshops);
¨ Non-availability of farm inputs (approximately one third);
¨ Poor roads (nearly one third);
¨ Limited access to markets (one third);
¨ Non-availability of credits (almost one third);
¨ Collapse of cooperatives (one sixth);
¨ Adverse climatic conditions (one-sixth); and
¨ Absence of safety-nets to cope with (weather-related) short-term fluctuations in income (one-sixth).
·Monterrey Consensus in 2002