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Cognition: Memory. The Phenomenon of Memory. Introduction. Memory Extremes of memory. 48 58 29 42 56 88 39 69 49 55. Introduction. 39 87 43 02 98 63 41 80 62 54. Task #1 – Random Number Lists Trial #1 – (Hear) Trial #2 – (Hear & See) Trial #3 – (Hear, See, & Say)

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Introduction
Introduction

  • Memory

  • Extremes of memory


Introduction1

  • 48

  • 58

  • 29

  • 42

  • 56

  • 88

  • 39

  • 69

  • 49

  • 55

Introduction

  • 39

  • 87

  • 43

  • 02

  • 98

  • 63

  • 41

  • 80

  • 62

  • 54

  • Task #1 – Random Number Lists

    • Trial #1 – (Hear)

    • Trial #2 – (Hear & See)

    • Trial #3 – (Hear, See, & Say)

    • Trial #4 – (Hear, See, Say, & Write)

  • 88

  • 92

  • 54

  • 67

  • 03

  • 19

  • 99

  • 60

  • 50

  • 52

  • Trial #5 – (Odd or Even)

  • Trial #6 – (Numerical Order)

  • Trial #7 – (Personal Connection)


Introduction2
Introduction

  • Task #1 – Random Number Lists

    • Trial #1 - 84, 77, 99, 32, 60, 75, 78, 96, 42, 23

    • Trial #2 - 88, 92, 54, 67, 03, 19, 99, 60, 50, 52

    • Trial #3 - 48, 58, 29, 42, 56, 88, 39, 69, 49, 55

    • Trial #4 - 39, 87, 43, 02, 98, 63, 41, 80, 62, 54

    • Trial #5 - 71, 91, 58, 57, 32, 33, 85, 01, 26, 80

    • Trial #6 - 17, 77, 24, 58, 81, 59, 54, 42, 78, 71

    • Trial #7 - 15, 84, 05, 16, 08, 31, 64, 65, 07, 38


Introduction3
Introduction

  • Task #2 – Names

    • Name the Seven Dwarves

    • Difficulty?

    • TOT Phenomenon?

    • Organization (Sound? Letter? Meaning?)

    • Recall vs. Recognition?

      • Grouchy, Gabby, Fearful, Sleepy, Smiley, Jumpy, Hopeful, Shy, Droopy, Dopey, Sniffy, Wishful, Puffy, Dumpy, Teach, Sneezy, Lazy, Pop, Doc, Rocky, Grumpy, Bashful, Cheerful, Shorty, Nifty, Happy, Wheezy, Stubby

  • Task #2 – Names

    • Name the Seven Dwarves

    • Difficulty?

    • TOT Phenomenon?

    • Organization (Sound? Letter? Meaning?)

    • Recall vs. Recognition?

      • Grouchy, Gabby, Fearful, Sleepy, Smiley, Jumpy, Hopeful, Shy, Droopy, Dopey, Sniffy, Wishful, Puffy, Dumpy, Teach, Sneezy, Lazy, Pop, Doc, Rocky, Grumpy, Bashful, Cheerful, Shorty, Nifty, Happy, Wheezy, Stubby


Introduction4
Introduction

  • Task #3 – Critical Thinking

    • No Memory

      • With no memory, how would you answer the question: How are you today?

      • With no memory, how would you answer the question: Who are you? How would your identity be affected?

    • Spotless Mind

      • Would you “erase” any of your memories? If so, how would that change you? If not, why not?

      • Would there be the benefit of erasing the horrible memories that Holocaust survivors have: to those individuals? To society as a whole?



Introduction atkinson shiffrin three stage model
IntroductionAtkinson-Shiffrin Three-Stage Model

  • Encoding

  • Storage

  • Retrieval


Introduction5
Introduction

  • Connectionism

    • Sensory memory

    • Short-term memory

    • Long-term memory

  • Modified version of the three-stage processing model of memory

    • Information directly into long-term memory

    • Working memory


Encoding getting information in how we encode
Encoding: Getting Information InHow We Encode

Mr. Rockwell’s 3rd grade Poem (Don’t laugh)

Spring is the

The most beautiful

Time of the year.

  • Automatic processing

    • Space

    • Time

    • Frequency

    • Well-learned information

.seippupdnasrewolfsevolkcoR .rM

!tuosihterugifotgniyrt era uoysaynnufskoolecafruoY


Encoding getting information in how we encode1
Encoding: Getting Information InHow We Encode

  • Effortful Processing

  • Rehearsal

    • Conscious repetition

  • List the Gifts from:

    • “The 12 Days of Christmas”


Encoding getting information in how we encode2
Encoding: Getting Information InHow We Encode

  • Ebbinghaus curve


Encoding getting information in how we encode3
Encoding: Getting Information InHow We Encode

  • Overlearning

    • Additional rehearsal after learning = increased retention

  • Spacing effect

    • Massed practice vs, Distributed practice

  • Testing effect

  • Implications for your own learning??


Encoding getting information in how we encode4
Encoding: Getting Information InHow We Encode

  • Serial position effect

    • Recency effect

    • Primacy effect


Encoding getting information in how we encode5
Encoding: Getting Information InHow We Encode

  • List as many US Presidents as you can


Encoding getting information in what we encode
Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode

  • Levels of Processing

    • Visual encoding

    • Acoustic encoding

      • Exercise 7A-4

    • Semantic encoding

  • Self-reference effect






Encoding getting information in what we encode1
Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode

  • Visual Encoding

    • Imagery

      • Rosy retrospection

    • Mnemonics

      • Peg-word system

      • Method of loci

      • 1st Letter

      • Substitution


Encoding getting information in what we encode2
Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode

  • Mnemonics


Encoding getting information in what we encode3
Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode

  • Mnemonics


Encoding getting information in what we encode4
Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode

  • Mnemonics


Encoding getting information in what we encode5
Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode

  • Organizing Information for Encoding

    • Chunking

      • acronym


Encoding getting information in what we encode6
Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode

  • Organizing Information for Encoding

    • Chunking

      • acronym


Encoding getting information in what we encode7
Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode

  • Organizing Information for Encoding

    • Chunking

      • acronym


Encoding getting information in what we encode8
Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode

  • Organizing Information for Encoding

    • Chunking

      • acronym


Encoding getting information in what we encode9
Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode

  • Organizing Information for Encoding

    • Chunking

      • acronym


Encoding getting information in what we encode10
Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode

  • Organizing Information for Encoding

    • Chunking

      • acronym


Encoding getting information in what we encode11
Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode

  • Organizing Information for Encoding

    • Chunking

      • acronym


Encoding getting information in what we encode12
Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode

  • Organizing Information for Encoding

    • Hierarchies


Storage retaining information introduction
Storage: Retaining InformationIntroduction

  • The Mind Series – Clive Wearing



Storage retaining information sensory memory
Storage: Retaining InformationSensory Memory

  • Iconic memory

    • Sperling’s memory experiment –

    • played one of three tones (each tone corresponding with a row of letters). Then he flashed the letters for less than a second and the subjects were able to identify the letters for the corresponding row.

  • Echoic memory


Storage and short term memory
Storage and Short-Term Memory

  • Lasts usually between 3 to 12 seconds.

  • We recall digits better than letters.


Storage retaining information working short term memory
Storage: Retaining InformationWorking/Short-Term Memory

  • Magic number Seven

    • Plus or minus 2

  • The list of magic sevens

    • Seven wonders of world, Seven seas, Seven deadly sins

    • Seven primary colors, Seven musical scale notes

    • Seven days of the week

  • Bottom Line =

    • At any moment, we can only consciously process a limited amount of information


Storage retaining information long term memory
Storage: Retaining InformationLong-Term Memory

  • Unlimited nature of long-term memory


Storage retaining information storing memories in the brain
Storage: Retaining InformationStoring Memories in the Brain

  • Emotions and memories

    • Strong Emotions = Stronger Memories

    • Stress can lead to the release of hormones that have been shown to assist in LTM.

  • Flashbulb memory


Cognition memory

Storage: Retaining InformationStoring Memories in the Brain


Retrieval getting information out
Retrieval: Getting Information Out

  • Recall

  • Recognition

  • Relearning


Retrieval getting information out retrieval cues
Retrieval: Getting Information OutRetrieval Cues

  • Retrieval cues

  • Mnemonic devices

  • Priming





Retrieval getting information out context effects
Retrieval: Getting Information OutContext Effects

  • Context effects

  • Déjà vu








Retrieval getting information out moods and memories
Retrieval: Getting Information OutMoods and Memories

  • State dependent memory

    • What we learn in one state may more easily be recalled in same state

  • Mood congruent memory

    • Tendency to recall experiences consistent with one’s current good or bad mood.




Memory
Memory

= the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.


Encoding
Encoding

= the processing of information into the memory systems – for example, by extracting meaning


Storage
Storage

= the retention of encoded information over time.


Retrieval
Retrieval

= the process of getting information out of memory storage.


Sensory memory
Sensory Memory

= the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.


Short term memory
Short-term Memory

= activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing before the information is stored or forgotten.


Long term memory
Long-term Memory

= the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.


Working memory
Working Memory

= a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.


Parallel processing
Parallel Processing

= the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain’s natural mode of information processing for many functions. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.


Automatic processing
Automatic Processing

= unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.


Effortful processing
Effortful Processing

= encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.


Rehearsal
Rehearsal

= the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.


Spacing effect
Spacing Effect

= the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.


Serial position effect
Serial Position Effect

= our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.


Visual encoding
Visual Encoding

= the encoding of picture images.


Acoustic encoding
Acoustic Encoding

= the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.


Semantic encoding
Semantic Encoding

= the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words.


Imagery
Imagery

= mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.


Mnemonics
Mnemonics

= memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.


Chunking
Chunking

= organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.


Iconic memory
Iconic Memory

= a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.


Echoic memory
Echoic Memory

= a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.


Long term potentiation ltp
Long-term Potentiation (LTP)

= an increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.


Flashbulb memory
Flashbulb Memory

= a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.


Amnesia
Amnesia

= loss of memory.


Implicit memory
Implicit Memory

= retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called nondeclarative or procedural memory)


Explicit memory
Explicit Memory

= memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare.” (Also called declarative memory)


Hippocampus
Hippocampus

= a neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage.


Recall
Recall

= a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learning earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.


Recognition
Recognition

= a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.


Relearning
Relearning

= a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.


Priming
Priming

= the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.


Deja vu
Deja Vu

= that eerie sense that “I’ve experienced this before.” Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.


Mood congruent memory
Mood Congruent Memory

= the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood.


Proactive interference
Proactive Interference

= the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.


Retroactive interference
Retroactive Interference

= the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.


Repression
Repression

= in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.


Misinformation effect
Misinformation Effect

= incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event.


Source amnesia
Source Amnesia

= attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (Also called source misattribution.) Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.