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TORCH – a Cherenkov based Time-of-Flight Detector. Euan N. Cowie on behalf of the TORCH collaboration. Outline. TORCH Design and Principles. Suitability for use in LHCb . MCP Requirements. Results and simulation work. Electronics. Test-Beam plans and Preparation.

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torch a cherenkov based time of flight detector

TORCH – a Cherenkov based Time-of-Flight Detector

Euan N. Cowie

on behalf of the TORCH collaboration

E N Cowie - TORCH - TIPP 2014

outline
Outline
  • TORCHDesign and Principles.
    • Suitability for use in LHCb.
  • MCP Requirements.
    • Results and simulation work.
  • Electronics.
  • Test-Beam plans and Preparation.

E N Cowie - TORCH - TIPP 2014

slide3

Time Of internally Reflected Cherenkov

5m

  • TORCH aims to achieve 10-15ps timing over large areas.
  • Utilises Cherenkov light for fast signal production.
  • Focussing optics along edges couple light to photodetectors.

6m

The basics of the TORCH design

E N Cowie - TORCH - TIPP 2014

slide4

See:

The RICH detector of the LHCbexperiment

AntonisPapanestis

Session 2a) Experiments and Upgrades

TORCH in LHCb

10 – 300 mrad

p

p

LHCb showing potential locations for TORCH [1]

E N Cowie - TORCH - TIPP 2014

slide5

Motivation

  • TORCH will be used in conjunction with RICH 1 & 2.
  • Covers momentum region up to 10GeV/c.
  • Pion-Kaontime-of-flight difference ~35ps over 9.5m.
  • 3-σ separation 10-15 ps.
  • ~30 photons detected per track gives requirement of 70ps per photon.

π-K ToF difference as a function of particle momentum

E N Cowie - TORCH - TIPP 2014

slide6

Focussing

  • Converts photon propagation angle into position on focal plane.
  • Photodetector is split into 128 pixels, with resolution ~1mrad.
  • Accounts for uncertainty in photon emission position through plate.
  • Covers angles from 0.45rad to 0.85rad.

Schematic of focussing optics

E N Cowie - TORCH - TIPP 2014

slide7

Photon Detection

  • Development of MCP-PMTs underway.
  • Final device requires:
  • Stable gain performance up to least 5C/cm2.
  • Granularity equivalent to 8x128 pixels.
    • Proposed device has 64x64 pixels.
    • Nearest neighbour charge sharing in fine granularity direction.
    • Pixels ganged together in coarse granularity direction.
  • 60 mm pitch with 53x53mm2 active area.

Required granularity of the final TORCH MCP.

E N Cowie - TORCH - TIPP 2014

slide8

Photon Detection

  • Three phases of development by Photek:
  • Long lifetime ALD coated single channel.
    • Currently under study.
  • High granularity devices.
    • Pixel size and pitch matching final device.
  • Full prototype.
    • Full size and pitch, high granularity, long lifetime.

Required granularity of the final TORCH MCP.

E N Cowie - TORCH - TIPP 2014

slide9

MCP-PMT Lifetime

Coated (improved) MCP-PMT

Uncoated MCP-PMT

TORCH Minimum Requirement

Photocathode response as a function of collected charge [2].

E N Cowie - TORCH - TIPP 2014

slide10

MCP-PMT Simulation

  • Extra granularity achieved with charge sharing.
  • Uncertainty in reconstructed position depends on gain and electronics threshold.
  • For more information see poster: Simulation studies of a novel, charge sharing, multi-anode MCP detector.Thomas Conneely & James Milnes, PhotekLTD.

Electronics Threshold (fC)

Gain ( electrons)

E N Cowie - TORCH - TIPP 2014

Simulated uncertainty on position using charge-sharing as a function of gain and electronics threshold.

slide11

Timing

Timing smear divided into three categories:

Contributions arising from the PMT.

σpmt = 23ps

Phase 1 MCP-PMT timing distribution.

E N Cowie - TORCH - TIPP 2014

slide12

Timing

σopt = 55ps

Timing smear divided into three categories:

Contributions arising from the PMT.

Contributions arising from the optics.

Simulated optics timing distribution.

E N Cowie - TORCH - TIPP 2014

slide13

Timing

Timing smear divided into three categories:

Contributions arising from the optics.

Contributions arising from the PMT.

Contributions arising from the Electronics.

NINO leading edge jitter [3].

HPTDC timing resolution [4].

E N Cowie - TORCH - TIPP 2014

slide14

Electronics

HPTDC

Nino8

  • Initial tests of Nino8 and HPTDC show intrinsic resolution of 40ps [5].
  • R&D into electronics using 32 Channel NINO chips with HPTDC underway.

Nino32

E N Cowie - TORCH - TIPP 2014

slide15

Test-Beam

Fused Silica

  • Radiator plate measuring 350x120x10 mm3 joined to a focussing block.
  • Read out by two MCP-PMTs on the focal plane.
  • Aiming for December deployment at T9 beam on the PS at CERN.

MCP-PMTs

Focussing Surface

E N Cowie - TORCH - TIPP 2014

future work
Future Work
  • Phase 1 MCP-PMTs continue to be tested.
    • Phase 2 MCP-PMTs delivered this year.
    • Phase 3 to follow next year.
  • A prototype module will be developed to prove the full concept.
  • Proposal will be submitted to LHCb upon successful completion of R&D phase.

E N Cowie - TORCH - TIPP 2014

slide17

Fin

Thanks for listening!

E N Cowie - TORCH - TIPP 2014

references
References

[1] The LHCb Collaboration, “Letter of Intent for the LHCb Upgrade”, CERN-LHCC-2011-001, 29 March 2011 (v2).

[2] T. M. Conneely, J. S. Milnes, J. Howorth, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A732 (2013) 388-391.

[3] M. Despeisse et al.IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL. 58, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2011

[4] J. Christiansen, “High Performance Time to Digital Converter”, CERN/EP-MIC, 2002.

[5] R Gao et al, 2014 JINST9C02025.

E N Cowie - TORCH - TIPP 2014

extra slides

Extra Slides

E N Cowie - TORCH - TIPP 2014

slide20

Start Time

Example from PV of same event

After removing outliers

ps

E N Cowie - TORCH - TIPP 2014

slide21

Modular Design

A modular design for TORCH

E N Cowie - TORCH - TIPP 2014

slide22

Effects of Modular Design

Without dispersion or

reflection off lower edge

Including dispersion and reflection off lower edge

Moduleconsidered

E N Cowie - TORCH - TIPP 2014

slide23

Dispersion

n

Wavelength (nm)

Wavelength dependence of refractive indexes

Photon production spectrum

E N Cowie - TORCH - TIPP 2014

slide24

Performance

Correct ID

Correct ID

Mis-ID

Mis-ID

Kaon ID performance

Pion ID performance

E N Cowie - TORCH - TIPP 2014

slide25

Photon Detection

  • Photodetectors required to have precise single photoelectron time resolution and long lifetime
  • MCP-PMTs chosen for lower intrinsic transit-time spread.
  • Atomic Layer Deposition coating will be used to increase lifetime.

Example of MCP internal layout

E N Cowie - TORCH - TIPP 2014