Social Marketing of Smoke-free Homes: Impacts for Maori Caregivers
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Social Marketing of Smoke-free Homes: Impacts for Maori Caregivers Stella McGough, MSc – The Quit Group Mere Wilson, BCA BA – HSC. Outline. Second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in New Zealand Campaign development, programme planning and evaluation Campaign in action Stakeholder perceptions

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Social Marketing of Smoke-free Homes: Impacts for Maori Caregivers

Stella McGough, MSc – The Quit Group

Mere Wilson, BCA BA – HSC

Outline Caregivers

  • Second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in New Zealand

  • Campaign development, programme planning and evaluation

  • Campaign in action

  • Stakeholder perceptions

  • Impacts associated with Smokefree Homes

  • Learnings and conclusions

The problem of shs
The problem of SHS Caregivers

  • SHS contains more than 4,000 chemicals, including 50 that are known to cause cancer

  • Strong associations between exposure to SHS and increased risk of illness/death

  • Children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS – via biological and social factors

  • Where there’s smoke, there’s someone role-modelling smoking behaviour

Exposure to shs new zealand
Exposure to SHS: New Zealand Caregivers

  • December 2004: Further amendments made to the Smoke-free Environments Act (1990)

  • Need for protection of non-smokers in private settings

  • Substantial proportion of New Zealanders still smoke – relatively higher prevalence among Maori

  • Baseline population survey conducted in 2003:

    7-day point prevalence for Maori caregivers 34%

    7-day point prevalence for non-Maori caregivers 18%

The process
The process Caregivers

  • Establishment of Reference Group

  • Formative research:

    • Literature review

    • Interviews with smoking parents and caregivers

    • Baseline population survey

    • Concept testing

  • Development of the campaign plan

Parameters Caregivers

  • Target group – ‘children’

    • Need for protection / have most to gain

    • Smoking around children linked to youth uptake

  • Priority groups

    = groups most at risk of being exposed to SHS:

    • Smokers / smoking households

    • Maori households

    • Low socio-economic status households

      + Households with children aged 2 – 13 years

Parameters cont
Parameters cont. Caregivers

  • Setting – ‘homes and cars’

    • Primary setting for SHS exposure of children

  • Intervention group – ‘parents and caregivers’

    = group most able to effect change with respect to children’s exposure to SHS in homes and cars

    • Particularly those who smoke (within priority groups)

Goal: Caregivers

Increase the number of parents and caregivers implementing and enforcing strategies to reduce exposure of children to SHS in homes and cars

Objectives Caregivers

  • Motivation

  • Knowledge of strategies

  • Confidence

  • Support

  • Cessation

  • Equitable benefits for Maori

Strategies Caregivers

  • Mass communications

    • communicating at population level - TVC, Radio Ads, national print magazines, website

  • Supporting community action

    • supporting local activities that promote smokefree homes and cars messages - number of resources developed.

Tvc development
TVC development Caregivers

  • Creative brief

  • Concept development

  • Concept testing (part of formative research)

  • Development of campaign material

    • TVCs, print ads, radio ads, posters, pamphlets, resources etc

  • Dissemination planning i.e. booking media, identifying how resources should be distributed

Tvc concept testing
TVC Concept testing Caregivers

  • Focus Groups

    • 52% Maori, 41% Pakeha

    • Current Smokers, aged 18-65

    • Parents/ Caregivers to children aged 2-13yrs

    • Identified themselves as smoking inside their homes

    • Mid to low socio-economic

    • 8 groups, 2.5hrs long

    • 4 concepts were tested.

Tvc concept testing results
TVC Concept testing - Results Caregivers

  • These results informed the further dvpt of TVC, but also supporting resources.

    • Strapline - Take it outside to Take the smoke outside

    • Use of tikanga -

      • “You don’t combine smoking and carving, it’s tikanga, it’s just not done.” (Maori, female, Urban)

    • Not explicity targeting by ethnicity -

      • “They’re using Maori, those bloody Maori, here we go, they’re just trying to target one race. Every time I see a commercial like that, it’s just another thing going on about Maori again.” (Maori, female, Urban)

      • “We’re always only on the negative [advertisements], all these bad things, we’re on the news allthe time.” (Maori, female, Rural/Provincial)

Tvc problem
TVC - Problem Caregivers

Tvc solution
TVC - Solution Caregivers

Strategy 2 community action
Strategy 2: Community action Caregivers

  • Aims:

    • To get Smokefree Homes on community health workers’ agendas

    • To support community action that promotes Smokefree Homes

Involving the workforce
Involving the Workforce Caregivers

  • Presentations at regional / community health worker meetings

  • Campaign website

  • Campaign resources

    • Posters, pamphlets, key-rings, fridge magnets, stickers etc

  • Opportunities for integrating national / regional / local initiatives with Smokefree Homes campaign e.g. WSFD 04 and 05

Impacts associated with the Caregivers

Smokefree Homes Campaign

Key research
Key research Caregivers

  • Public response to the Smokefree Homes campaign

  • 7-day point prevalence of exposure to SHS in the home

  • Further validation from self-reported smoking restrictions in the home

Awareness and perceptions
Awareness and Perceptions Caregivers

  • Unprompted awareness of any of the three Smokefree Homes TVCs: ≡19%

  • Prompted awareness of the awareness-raising Poisons TVC: 70%

  • Prompted awareness of the solution-focused Take the Smoke Outside

    TVC: 73%

Prompted awareness
Prompted Awareness Caregivers

Engagement poisons tvc
Engagement: Poisons TVC Caregivers

All Maori interviewed (n=1019)

Only Maori caregivers (n=321)

vs 30.9

vs 40.4

vs 37.9

vs 39.1

Engagement ttso tvc
Engagement: TTSO TVC Caregivers

All Maori interviewed (n=1019)

Only Maori Caregivers (n=321)

vs 26.2

vs 42.2

vs 27.6

vs 38.7

Learnings and conclusions
Learnings and conclusions Caregivers

  • Follow standard Social Marketing practice: ask your audience! Get inside their heads.

  • Act on the feedback you receive!

  • Resources: not all of the ideas worked in our communities

  • Gain leverage from other agencies / initiatives if you can

    - example: Asthma campaign

  • Change may happen slowly – make your evaluation tools sensitive to that (a Programme Plan helps)

Acknowledgements Caregivers

  • Campaign Reference Group:

    Te Hotu Manawa Maori, New Zealand Heart Foundation, Action on Smoking and Health (ASH), Smokefree Coalition, Aparangi Tautoko Auahi Kore (ATAK now Te Reo Marama), Aukati Kai Paipa, Smokefree Pacific Action Network (SPAN), Wellington School of Medicine Department of Public Health

  • Trevor Shailer, Anaru Waa

  • Research participants of the concept testing and population surveys

  • TNS and Gravitas Research and Strategy who conducted the fieldwork for the population surveys

  • Kiri Milne – for providing material for this presentation

Smokefree homes campaign
Smokefree Homes Caregivers campaign

Contacts: Websites:

Marija Vidovich

Smokefree Community, HSC

[email protected]

Mere Wilson

Auahi Kore Programme, HSC

[email protected]

Stella McGough, Researcher, The Quit Group (formerly of HSC)

[email protected]