Ready or Not: Preparing for Pandemic Flu - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Ready or Not: Preparing for Pandemic Flu

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  1. Ready or Not:Preparing for Pandemic Flu

  2. A flu pandemic will happen – we can’t predict when or where

  3. Objectives • Understand what avian flu and pandemic flu are • Describe three things you can do at home to prepare and/or protect yourself and your family • Describe three things you can do at work to protect yourself and others • Identify where to get accurate information about pandemic flu

  4. Definitions • Seasonal Influenza • Avian Influenza • Pandemic Influenza

  5. Seasonal Influenza • Caused by a virus • Infects humans • Usually occurs during the winter • Easily spreads from person to person • Vaccine is available

  6. Seasonal Influenza • Incubation period is usually 1-3 days • Symptoms • -Fever (often sudden), chills, headache, muscle aches, dry cough, sore throat, weakness, runny nose, may last three to five days or more • -People can shed the virus without showing symptoms of infection

  7. Seasonal Influenza • The virus can be spread: -Cough/Sneeze • Most important (within 3 feet) -Contact • Contaminated articles Droplet Contact

  8. The Burden of Seasonal Influenza • 250,000 to 500,000 deaths globally/yr • 36,000 deaths and > 200,000 hospitalizations/yr in U.S. • $37.5 billion in economic costs/yr in U.S. related to influenza and pneumonia

  9. Influenza and Other Species • Influenza viruses can infect a number of different species, including humans • Other species include: • Birds (Avian) • Pigs • Horses • Seals • Whales

  10. Avian Influenza (“Bird Flu”) • Readily infectious between birds • Only rarely infects humans

  11. How do humans get the bird “bird flu”? Through close direct contact with poultry Not easily passed from bird to human

  12. How a new human influenza virus is created

  13. Situation Report: H5N1 Avian Flu in Humans • Human infections associated with close direct contact with infected poultry • High mortality (above 50%) • Does not transmit from human to human efficiently so far

  14. What is a pandemic? • Outbreak is higher than usual number of cases occurring locally • Pandemic is a worldwide outbreak

  15. 1968 1918 1957 Spanish Flu H1N1 Hong Kong Flu H3N2 Asian Flu H2N2 Flu Pandemics in the 20th Century H3 H2 H1 1915 1925 1935 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005

  16. Requirements for a pandemic • A new virus must emerge (people have not been exposed to it before) • Infection usually causes serious disease • The virus must spread as easily as seasonal influenza—by coughing and sneezing

  17. Interpandemic Pandemic Alert Pandemic Phase 1 No new virus in humans Animal viruses low risk to humans Phase 2 No new virus in humans Animal viruses high risk to humans Phase 3 New virus in humans Little/no spread among humans Phase 4 Small clusters, localized Limited spread among humans Phase 5 Larger clusters, localized Limited spread among humans Phase 6 Increased and sustained spread in general human population Current Pandemic Status Current Level

  18. Planning Assumptions • Time from infection to symptoms: • 1-4 days (average 2 days) • Infectiousness: • Greatest during the first 2 days of illness may be infectious 1 day BEFORE symptoms • Infectious for about 5 or more days, children will shed the most virus • On average, each person will transmit influenza to two others

  19. Planning Assumptions • In an affected community an outbreak may last 6-8 weeks • Absenteeism may be as high as 40% in a severe pandemic • High rates of illness may occur among school aged children

  20. Things to think about during a pandemic: • Need to create as safe a work place as possible • Need healthy workers on the job to keep community functioning • Need workers to remain home when ill • Healthcare may look different during a pandemic

  21. Health Protection Preparedness System • Local-state-federal • Domestic-international • Multisector integration • Public-private • Non-partisan • Animal-human • Health protection-homeland security-economic protection Local /State / Federal Public Health System Healthcare Delivery System Federal Partners Business & Workers Education System • It Takes a NETWORK!

  22. National Response • Development of a national response plan and checklists to help local communities plan • Investment of resources into vaccine development and medication reserves • Control of disease coming from outside the U.S. through isolation/quarantine

  23. Local Response

  24. Quarantine: Well persons exposed to an Illness are kept separate from others to reduce disease spread Isolation: Ill persons are kept separate from others to reduce disease spread with the illness

  25. Community Control of Pandemic Influenza less • Isolation of the ill • Management of patient contacts • Quarantine of small groups • Cancellation of specific events • Closure of specific facilities • Snow days and self-shielding • Closure of facilities and transportation • Widespread community quarantine Restrictive more

  26. As an individual what can you do to protect yourself and your family?

  27. Individual Activities • Social Distancing • Annual flu vaccine • Hand hygiene • Respiratory etiquette “Cover your cough”

  28. Social Distancing • Three feet from other people • Limit face-to-face contact

  29. Prepare for an extended stay at home: • Ready-to-eat canned meats, fruits, vegetables, and soups • Protein or fruit bars • Dry cereal or granola • Peanut butter or nuts • Dried fruit • Crackers • Canned juices • Bottled water • Canned or jarred baby food and formula • Pet food

  30. Examples of medical, health, and emergency supplies Soap and water Medicines for fever Fluids with electrolytes Garbage bags Thermometer Batteries Prescribed medical supplies Portable radio alcohol-based hand wash Tissues, toilet paper, disposable diapers

  31. Hygiene: Wash Your Hands • Before, during, and after you prepare food • Before you eat, and after you use the bathroom • After handling animals or animal waste • When your hands are dirty, and • More frequently when someone in your home is sick • Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth

  32. Wash Your Hands Use soap and warm running water for At least 20 seconds OR Use an alcohol based hand sanitizer for at least 15 seconds.

  33. If you become ill…

  34. Sneezes and Coughs are powerful germ explosions

  35. Cover Your Coughs and Sneezes • Use a tissue or inside of your elbow when sneezing or coughing. Cough HERE

  36. Stay home when you are sick • Stay home if you have… A fever of 101 degrees If needed seek medical care

  37. More information is available

  38. Resources • National Planning: www.pandemicflu.gov • Bird and Animal Issues: www.usda.gov • State Planning: http://www.oregon.gov/DHS/ph/acd/flu/influenza.shtml • Marion County Communicable Disease Info (503) 588-5621

  39. “Pandemics are global in nature, but their impact is local. When the next pandemic strikes, as it surely will, it is likely to touch the lives of every individual, family, and community. Our task is to make sure that when this happens, we will be a Nation prepared.” -Mike Leavitt, Secretary US Department of Health and Human Services