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Earth History GEOL 2110. Theory of Plate Tectonics Part 2: Elements of Plate Tectonics. Major Concepts.

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earth history geol 2110

Earth History GEOL 2110

Theory of Plate Tectonics

Part 2:

Elements of Plate Tectonics

major concepts
Major Concepts
  • Plate Tectonic theory posits that the earth outer layer (lithosphere) is composed of rigid plates that are moving relative to each other; Plates are composed of either thin oceanic crust or thick continental crust overlying upper mantle
  • Plate boundaries that are diverging are where new oceanic crust is being created as the mantle upwells, decompresses and partially melts.
  • Plate boundaries that are converging involve one oceanic crust plate subducting beneath another or a continental edge. This triggers earthquakes and explosive volcanism resulting from partial melting of a hydrated mantle wedge
  • Orogensis occurs when continental crust encounters continental crust
slide3

Plate Tectonic Theory

The Earth’s outer shell (lithosphere) is composed of rigid plates that are moving relative to one another.

internal structure of the earth
Internal Structure of the Earth

Compositional Layers

Physical

Layers

slide5

Plate Tectonics Drives Two Stages Crust-making

A. Mantle partially melts to make ocean crust

B. Ocean crust partially melts to make continental crust

slide6

What Moves the Plates?

Mantle Push Ridge Slide

Slab

Pull

slide8

Divergent Plate Boundaries

Mid-ocean Ridges

Where Stage 1 Crust is Made

slide9

Basalt

Rock Type of the Ocean Crust

Remember:

Melting the mantle makes

mafic magma!! Always

Pillow Lavas

slide10

Hydrothermal Alteration of Ocean Crust

Preparing it for Stage 2 Melting

“Black Smokers”-

metal-rich hydrothermal waters venting into the ocean floor

slide11

Continental

Rifting

The creation

of new ocean basins

slide12

Continental Rifting and

The Break-up

of Pangea

slide15

Convergent Boundaries

Making 2nd Stage Crust

Ancient

Continental

Crust

slide16

Convergent Boundaries

Where the Action Is!!

Ocean - Ocean

Earthquakes

Ocean-

Continent

Volcanoes

Continent - Continent

slide17

Consequences of Convergence

Explosive Volcanism

Mt. St. Helens

May 18, 1980

slide18

Consequences of Convergence

Mountain Building

and

Rock Deformation

slide19

Consequences of Convergence

Earthquakes

Banda Ache, Dec. 26, 2004

slide20

OROGENESIS

The Culmination of Convergence

slide23

The San Andreas Fault

San Francisco Earthquake

April 18, 1906 Mag 7.8

slide24

Mantle

Plumes/

Hotspots

slide25

Mantle Hotspots in the Oceans

Sites of overthickened crust and the formation of ocean islands and plateaus

slide26

Famous Hotspots

Yellowstone

Hawaii

Iceland

sedimentary basins and plate tectonics
Sedimentary Basins and Plate Tectonics

Evolution of Sedimentation during Arc-Continent Collision

friday
FRIDAY

Midterm Exam 1

Chapters 1 to 7