Industrial Training Institute Vyara C.O.E.MODULE-ECBT: 2. “BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING” DURATION: 8 Week
Theory syllabus • WIRE AND CABLE • Types, grades, shapes and sizes of insulation. • Their proper selection & uses. • Different types of joints e.g. Britannia, straight, tee western union. • Care in making a good joint. • SIGNS &SYMBOLS • Letters, signs and symbols used in electrical terminology. • OHM’S LAW • Ohm’s law & its application.
Theory syllabus • 3.ELECTRICALCIRCUIT: • Concept of ele. Circuit • Series, parallel & mixed circuits. • 4.METERS: • A.C. meters • D.C. meters • 5.RESISTANCE: • Law of resistance. • Problems on law of resistance. • 6.KIRCHHOFFLAW: • Laws. • Their application.
Theory syllabus • 7. WHEATSTONEBRIDGE: • Laws. • Its application. • 8 WIRINGS: • Testing of wiring • Installations. • Common faults, their causes & remedies. • 9 EARTHING: • Its purpose & types. • I.E. rules regarding earth & earth resistance. • 10 MEGGER: • Measurement of earth resistance by use of Megger.
Theory syllabus 11. BATTERY: • Electrolysis. • Primary & secondary cell, dry cell, standard cell. • Grouping of cells. • Construction & working of lead acid, alkaline. • Battery charging. • MAGNETS: • Their types, shapes, properties, B-H curves. • Methods of magnetization & demagnetization. 13. ELECTROMAGNET: • Their advantages over permanent magnets. • Faradays law & Lenz's law (self & mutual induct.)
Theory syllabus • 14. CAPACITOR: • Working & types. • Capacity of capacitor & energy stored in capacitor. 15. A.C. ELECTRICAL: • R.m.s. value, max.value, ave.value, • Inductance, capacitance, impedence,reactance • Power & power factor & improving method. 16. A.C. CIRCUITS: • Single phase & three phase. 17. TRANSFORMER: • Working principle • Types as per core, 1-phase, 3-phase.
Theory syllabus • Parts of x’mer. • Different methods used for cooling. • Parallel operation of x’mer. • Losses of x’mer (hysterias & eddy current). 18. ILLUNIMATION: • types & laws. • Construction & working of incandescent lamp, discharge lamp, fluorescent lamp, mercury vapor lamp, neon lamp. 19. ALARM CIRCUIT: • Study of simple contactor & alarm circuit.
WIRE & CABLE • Varies types of wires.1.VIR wire: • It is called vulcanized insulation rubber wire. Copper & aluminum conductor are used in its. Rubber coating vulcanized on its. now single & double braided wires are mostly in a uses. But Its lower tensile strength,chamical reaction & bed insulation so its uses low in today. • 2. CTS & TRS wire: • It is called crab tyre sheath wire & tuff rubber sheath wire. Hard & good rubber coating on copper wire in this wire. Its uses in house wiring & industrial wiring. It is used in a11kv.
WIRE & CABLE 3. Weather proof wire: No any weather reaction , in this types of wire. Because it has cotton breeding with water proof. But it is flammable so no in use now. 4. LC wire: It is called led covered wire. Led pipe on rubber insulation &its coating on conductor. It is very good in moisture condition but less tensile strength so low uses now. 5. MICC wire : It is called mineral insulated copper covered wire. In this types wire copper conductor coated with magnesium oxide. And After copper coating is coated on its. In case of moisture weather PVC coating (serving) is coated on its. It
WIRE & CABLE is uses in mines, factory, furnace, boiler, rolling mills etc. magnesium oxide is used for avoiding moisture problems. 6. PVC wire: It is called poly venial chloride wire. PVC coating on copper conductor so its so many advantages as follows. (a) High die electric strength (b) High tensile strength (c) More defense against moisture (d) High life (e) No disturb in vibration
FLEXIBLE WIRE This is flexible wire. Its P.V.C. insulation wire. There is two core wire. A red Wire is use for phase & black For neutron wire. It is also Called 32\20 wire, its means 32 is gauge & 20 is no, of wire Its used for temporary wiring, Fan wiring, tube wiring etc.
THREE CORE WIRE This is three core wire. It is pvc insulated wire. Its used for 1-phase. There is blue wire for phase, yellow wire for neutral & brown wire for earth. There is color code wire used for wiring &supply.
CABLE STRUCTURE There is cable wire. Its Use for power transmit ion. 1- core 2- pvc insulation 3- oil duct 4- metallic screen 5- rubber insulation
CABLE • Introduction • Under ground cable is used electricity distribution & street light in mega and big cities and area in place of over head line. Its looking so wonder & beautiful but also so costly. • General construction & main parts of cable • Core: • Insulation: • Metallic sheath: • Bedding: • Armoring: • Serving:
CABLE • Classification of cables as construction • 1. Low tension cable • 2. Belted cable • 3. Screened or H type cable • 4. SL type cable (separate lead sheath cable) • 5. HSL type cable (H+SL) • 6.Super tension cable • (a) Oil field cable • (b) Gas pressure cable
CABLE • Classification of cable as insulation: • 1. Rubber insulated. • 2. PVC insulated. • 3. Polyethylene insulated. • 4. Varnish cambric insulated. • 5. Paper insulated.
CABLE • Classification of cables as voltage rating • Low voltage cable. • 2. High voltage cable. • 3. Supertention cable. • 4. Extra high tension. • 5. Extra super voltage cables. • Insulation resistance of a 1- core sheathed cable. • R =pLoger2/2πlr1 • capacitance & dielectric stress of 1- core cable. • Grading of cables. • Methods of laying of underground cables.
CABLE • Properties.1. High resitivity. • 2. High dielectric strength. • 3. Low thermal co-efficient. • 4. Low water absorption • 5. Non inflammable. • 6. High mechanical strength. • 7. High tensile strength. • 8. Varies insulating materials. • 9. Rubber. • 10. V.I.R. • 11. P.V.C.
S.W.G. (standard wire gauge) • Introduction • A Instrument which is use for measure Cross Area (gauge) of wire • varies types of gauges • (a) 1/18 • (b) 3/20 • (c) 32/20 • Varies uses of its • To measure Cross area of wire • To measure gauge
SIGNS & SYMBOLS • Introduction: • In electrical, so many signs & symbols are used for drawing electrical circuits also use for short identification. • Different types of sign & symbols of ele. • 1) A.C. = ~ 2) D.C. = ־ • 3) Power = w 4) Voltage = v • 5) Current = I • 6) Resistance = R • 7) Inductor = L
SIGNS & SYMBOLS 7) Neutral = N 8) Positive polarity = + 9) Negative polarity = - 10) delta connection = 11) Star connection = Y 12) Resistor = 13) Variable Resi. = 14) impedance = 15) Inductor = 16) Winding = 17) Capacitor = 18) Earth = Z L
SIGNS & SYMBOLS 19) Fault = 20) Going up wiring = 21) Going down wiring = 22) 1-pole switch = o 23) 2- pole switch = o 24) 3-pole switch = o 25) Two way switch= o 26) Intermediate switch = o 27) Push button switch = 28) socket 5- amp. =∩ 29) Socket 15- amp. = 30) Lamp = X 31) Fluorescent lamp =
SIGNS & SYMBOLS 32) Heater = 33) Bell = 34) Siren = 35) Ceiling fan = 36) Exhaust fan = 37) volt meter = 38) ammeter = 39) wattmeter = 40) frequency meter= 41) Ohm meter = V I W F ohm
SIGNS & SYMBOLS 42) A.C. Motor = 43) A.C. Generator= 44) D.C. Motor = M ~ G ~ M _
OHM’S LAW • Introduction • Defination • “For a fixed metal conductor, the temperature & other conditions remaining constant the current (i) through it is proportional to the potential difference (v) between its ends” • Equation , • I=V/R , I=current • V=voltage • R=resistance • Equation solution • Triangular equation symbols.
TO STUDY OF A.C.& D.C. METERS • Introduction • Different types of meters • (1) A.C. Meters • (a) Ammeter • (b) voltmeter • (c) wattmeter • (2) D.C. Meters • (a) Ammeter • (b) voltmeter • (c) wattmeter • Difference bet’n A.C. & D.C. meters
MULTIMETER There is varies function able type meter. It is measure varies A.C. voltage, D.C. voltages,D.C. ampere & resistance in ohms ranges. Its also measure diode’s value etc.
ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT • Introduction • A.C. ele. Circuits • D.C. ele. Circuits • Different types of fault in ele. • (1)Open circuits • (2) Short circuits • (a) phase to phase fault • (b) phase to neutral fault • (c) phase to earth fault
RESISTANCE • Introduction: • Conductor, insulator, semi conductor. • Unit of resistance: • R=V/I • Different metters effecting on resistance: • (1) length of conductor • (2) area of conductor • (3) materials of conductor • (4) temperature of conductor • Kirchoff law & their application: • 1) Voltage law • 2) Current law • Wheat stone bridge and its application
Kirchoff law • Kirchhoff’s First law: “At each junction of currents, the sum of the incoming current is equal to the sum of the outgoing currents.” If all inflowing currents have positive signs, then we can state that, I1+I2=I3+I4+I5 +I1+I2-I3-I4-I5=0 in the above example the sum of all the currents flowing at the junction (node) is equal to zero. ΣI = 0 • Kirchhoff’Second Law: “in closed circuits, the applied terminal voltage V is equal to the sum of the voltage drop V1+V2 and so forth." If all the generated volt. Are taken as positive, and all the consumed voltage are taken as negative, then it can be stated that; in each closed circuit the sum of all voltage is equal to zero. ΣV = 0
WIRING • Introduction. • Testing of wiring installation. • Common faults . • 1) Open fault. • 2) short circuits fault. • Their causes . • Remedies its . • Conduit Wiring. • 1) Metal conduits. • 2) P.V.C. conduits. • Casing Capping wiring. • 1) wooden casing capping. • 2) P.V.C. casing capping.
EARTHING • Introduction • Its purpose • Ear thing is used for protection and safety of instruments and our. It is used for grounding to short circuit current. • Connection of instrument with ground with help of wire is called ear thing. • Types • (1) plate ear thing • (2) pipe ear thing • I.E. Rules regarding earth & earth resistance
EARTHING • Rod & Pipe earthing: these electrodes shall be made of metal rod or pipe having a clean surface not covered by paint, enamel or other poorly conducting material. rod electrodes of steel or galvanized iron shall be at least 16mm in diameter and those of copper shall be at least 12.5 mm diameter. Pipe electrodes shall not be smaller than 38mm internal diameter, if made of galvanised iron or steel and 100mm internal diameter if made of cast iron. Electrodes shall as far as practicable be embedded in earth below the permanent moisture level. The length of the rod & pipe electrodes shall not be less than 2.5m. Except where rock is encountered, pipes and rods shall be driven to a depth of 2.5 m where rock is encountered at a