3 Roles of the Media • Gatekeeper • Agenda Setter • Watch Dog
Gatekeeper • A gatekeeper stands guard at a gate and decides who gets to pass through and who doesn’t. • Each news outlet has its own criteria for deciding which stories get through the gate and into the public eye. • These 2 things explain some of the motivation news outlets cover certain things and not others: • Media is a Business • The media is almost always biased
Gatekeeper: Media is a Business • Regardless of the type of news outlet (TV, radio, newspaper, online news, etc.) almost all of them are for-profit businesses. • They make money by selling commercial time or ad space to ads. • How can this affect the way Media chooses stories to feature?
Gatekeeper: Media is Biased • Media is run by human beings, and ALL humans are affected by bias—EVEN if they try not to be. • The most obvious media biases are political:
Agenda Setter • Media is largely responsible for deciding what issues society discusses in the public sphere. • As we know, the media decides what issues get coverage in order to get the most viewers so that they can sell ads and make money. • Is that how we want our media to decide what is important? What types of things are always on the news?
Jack Johnson “The News” A billion people died on the news tonight But not so many cried at the terrible sight Well mama said It's just make believe You can't believe everything you see So baby close your eyes to the lullabies On the news tonight Who's the one to decide that it would be alright To put the music behind the news tonight Well mama said You can't believe everything you hear The diegetic world is so unclear So baby close your ears On the news tonight On the news tonight The unobtrusive tones on the news tonight And mama said MmmWhy don't the newscasters cry when they read about people who die At least they could be decent enough to put just a tear in their eyes Mama said It's just make believe You cant believe everything you see So baby close your eyes to the lullabies On the news tonight
Watchdog • In the role of watchdog, the media keeps watch on the government and others in power. • It often speaks out to alert the public of something happens that shouldn’t. • How has this role of the media changed politics?
Politicians using the Media • The internet, and social media make is easy for anyone to get their voice out for anyone to hear. You don’t have to be a CNN news correspondent to publish your opinion. • Many politicians have taken advantage of the internet to get out their own ideas and media. • http://youtu.be/UEuvNduQ97A
Propaganda • Media that uses carefully-crafted messages to manipulate people’s actions and beliefs • It has one purpose, and one purpose only: to persuade you. • They use biased, or one-sided, messages and are designed to appeal to peoples’ emotions instead of their judgment and reasoning.
Propaganda Techniques • Testimonials • Bandwagon • Name-Calling • Glittering Generalities • Card Stacking • Plain Folks • Transfer
Testimonials • Testimonials usually involve celebrities or other respected people endorsing, or officially supporting, a product or idea. • The person giving the testimonial could be famous, knowledgeable about the product (such as a doctor talking about medicine), or just an ordinary person who claims the product has worked for them. • Beware, though, because people are usually paid to give endorsements. • Ask yourself: Who is quoted in the testimonial? Is this person actually an expert about this product or idea? Does the product or idea have value without the testimony or endorsement?
Bandwagon • Jumping on the bandwagon” describes people choosing to go along with the rest of the crowd. • Bandwagon propaganda creates the impression that there is widespread support for a thing or idea. • Peer Pressure
Name-Calling • Name-calling is exactly what it sounds like: using negative words and bad names to create fear and dislike for people, ideas, or institutions. • Can be verbal or visual (shows a person or thing in an unflattering way).
Glittering Generalities • Glittering generalities use simple, clever slogans that appeal to peoples’ emotions. • This technique always shows the subject of the message in a positive light, but provides little or no information. • Easy to remember, but hard to verify.
Card Stacking • Card stacking uses facts and figures to show one side as positive and the other side as negative. • This technique is designed to make you think you are hearing both sides. In reality, you are actually hearing only one perspective.
Plain Folks • The plain folks technique is designed to send the message that a product or person is “just like you.” • Politicians have their picture taken visiting coffee shops, riding on tractors, and doing other things that everyday people do.
Transfer • The transfer technique uses your feelings about one thing to get you to feel the same way about something else. • Transfer can use a positive image to persuade you to like something or a negative image to persuade you to dislike something. • Ex: The US flag to seem patriotic, baby penguin to seem loveable, diseased skin in anti-smoking campaign, etc.
Centers • In the groups that you are assigned to you will rotate to each center. To answer the questions that go with it.
The Living Room Candidate • http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/