?????????

1 / 17

# ????????? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

## PowerPoint Slideshow about '?????????' - nellis

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

### 科學方法的邏輯思維

Research Process(研究過程)p1

Introduction序論

• How did you study the problem?
• 如何解答問題

Method方法

• What did you find?
• 發現什麼

Results結果

• What do these findings mean?
• 結果的意義

Discussion討論

Systematic(有系統的)

Logical(邏輯)

Empirical(眼見為真)

Reductive(還原)指我們對一個東西的了解.把一個大現象切割切割成多個小單位.我們去了解每一個小單位.我們只要了解每一個小單位.我們只要把每個小單位湊起來.我們就可以了解整個大現象(ex.只要我們了解電腦的每一個零件.我們就瞭解整個電腦)

Replicable(可重複)我們所尋求的歷程.只要是科學的研究歷程一定可以重複…此處重複的意思是”在做一次可以得到相同的答案”

Methods of problem Solving：Unscientific不科學的方法p13
• Tenacity (固執)
• Intuition (直覺或過去的經驗)
• Authority(權威)
• Rationalistic methods用理性的方法去推理
• Empirical methods我看到就是真的.
Methods of problem Solving：Scientific(論文的步驟.解決問題的步驟) p17

1. Developing the problem

(define and delimit)

• 發展出個問題(之後就會去定義問題或限制問題)
• Independent variable
• Dependent variable

Methods of problem Solving：Scientific

2. Formulating the hypothesis

The anticipated outcome(預期的結果)

Methods of problem Solving：Scientific

3. Gathering the data

• Internal validity(內在效度)
• External validity(外在效度)
• 內在效度控制越好與真實世界差越多
• 兩者互相消長
• 做研究時自己要去評估
Methods of problem Solving：Scientific

4. Analyzing and interpreting results

Types of Research Analysis
• Analytical research
• Descriptive research
• Experimental research
Types of Research (研究的類型)：Analytical(分析)
• Historical
• Philosophical
• Reviews
• Research Synthesis
Types of Research：Descriptive描述性
• The Questionnaire問卷
• The Interview訪談
• The Normative Survey調查
• The Case Study研究
• The Job Analysis工作分析
• The Documentary(Content) Analysis內容分析
• Developmental Studies發展性研究
• Correlational Studies相關研究
Types of Research：Experimental實驗室

Manipulation of treatments

Cause-effect relationships