The Rise of Totalitarianism. I. Totalitarianism. Definition: one-party dictatorship that regulates every aspect of citizens ’ lives; everything is subordinated totally to the state vs. dictatorship, authoritarianism, autocracy, absolutism. I. Totalitarianism. Characteristics:
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I. Totalitarianism • Definition: one-party dictatorship that regulates every aspect of citizens’ lives; everything is subordinated totally to the state • vs. dictatorship, authoritarianism, autocracy, absolutism
I. Totalitarianism • Characteristics: • Forced to live by ruler’s beliefs • Demands total mass conformity • 1 political party only • Propaganda • Technology • Secret police / terror • Censorship • State-controlled economy • Strong military • Leader tries to convince people he is democratic or has democratic support • Youth, professional, cultural, sports groups
I. Totalitarianism • “left” vs. “right” • Left • Communism • Collective ownership of wealth • Arise in undeveloped countries • Working class support • Ex.: USSR under Stalin, China under Mao • Right • Fascism & Nazism • Private ownership of wealth • Arise in developed countries • Middle class support • Ex.: Germany under Hitler, Italy under Mussolini
II. Fascism • Debate over definition • When it arose • 1 or more? • Right or left? (1920 shift) • Political doctrine vs. action • Definition (as best as it can be): • Anti- … socialist, communist, radical, democratic, republican, feminism, liberal, conservative • Pro- … new nationalist authoritarian state, volunteerism • Organization: mass party militia; use of violence • Youth movement • Technology • Not necessarily racist
III. Nazism • Germany / Hitler • Fascism + racism/anti-Semitism
IV. Communism • USSR / Stalin • Theory vs. practice