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Physical Science Semester 2 Unit 4 Matter
2/3/14Week of 2/3 to 2/7 • Entry Task • What are the “two pillars of science” that Einstein’s famous equation joined with c2 ? • Explain what Lavoisier became famous for. • Explain what Faraday became famous for.
Today’s Agenda • Finish notes on movie. • Please take note of people, year and place, and what they accomplished as a scientist. • You will turn your notes in tomorrow after discussion.
2/3/14 • Exit Task • Give a detailed example of how society influences science and technology and vice versa. • This example can be from the movie or real life.
2/4/14 • Entry Task • Describe what you know about the structure of atoms. • Homework: read pages 278-290. Answer questions #1-7 on page 284 AND #1-6 on page 290. Due Friday 2/7/14.
1812 – Michael Faraday, electricity/magnetism, London, only gentleman are scientists 1885 Einstein as a child – his family designed lighting for the city 1771 – Antoine Lavoisier, France, Conservation of Mass, French Revolution, he gets guillotine—disliked tax collector 1897 Einstein in high school, poor student, fascinated by light 1846 – Faraday realizes electricity and magnetism are connected, invents electric motor, names the “invisible light” electromagnetism 1722- Emilie du Chatalay, France, “before her time”, translated Newton’s principia and realized he had made an error, velocity should be squared, fell in love with poet Voltaire, died at 43 after childbirth 1905 – Einstein’s miracle year, Germany, 5 papers, including E=mc2 in 3 pages 1919 – Fame finds Einstein via Max Planck. He divorces Mileva, marries cousin 1907 – Berlin, Germany; Lisa Meitner becomes first woman professor (1912)of physics 1920-30 “Golden Age of Nuclear Research” 1930’s – Nazis drive out Jewish intellectuals; Einstein leaves in 1933; Meitner barely escapes in 1938 1938 – Sweden, Robert Frisch (nephew) and Meitner “split the atom” realizing that lost mass is converted directly to energy during nuclear fission 1944 – Hann awarded prize for discovering nuclear fission (Meitner got little credit) 1942 Manhattan Project in US; bombs contain only a couple pounds of Uranium and Plutonium
Today’s Agenda – create a timeline • You will be placed into a team. • Compile your notes so that everyone has complete notes to turn in. • 1 = Energy • 2 = mass • 3 = light • 4 = velocity (speed of light squared) • 5 = development of e=mc2, • 6 = confirmation of e=mc2 • Nominate a recorder, facilitator, data person, speaker. • WRITE CATEGORY ON TOP OF CARD. • One scientist per notecard. • Fill in Year, NAME, Nationality, Concept, Experiment(s), Challenges Faced. • These cards will go on timeline from 1700 to 1950. • Your team will present your cards.
2/4/14 • Exit Task • Explain how one scientist’s ideas evolved based on the work of other scientists. • Hold onto your notes!!! You will need them for the timeline project! To be continued Thursday.
2/5/14 • Entry Task • Explain how Einstein’s equation led to the splitting of the atom. • Hold onto your E=mc2 notes!!! You will need them for the timeline project! To be continued Thursday.
HW p 284, 290, VOCAB • Class time to work on HW: • Read pages 278-290. Answer questions #1-7 on page 284 AND #1-6 on page 290. • Due Friday 2/7/14. • Also, in C-notes form, define the following terms: • Electric charge • Proton • Neutron • Electron • Nucleus • Atomic number • Isotopes • Mass number • Energy level • Quantum theory
2/5/14 • Exit Task • You may use a textbook: • Define atomic number and mass number. • Explain how they are different.
2/6/14 • Entry Task • What further questions do you have after having completed “Einstein’s Big Idea”? • Take out your notes. Assign groups….
Today’s Agenda – create a timeline • You will be placed into a team. • Compile your notes so that everyone has complete notes to turn in. • 1 = Energy • 2 = mass • 3 = light • 4 = velocity (speed of light squared) • 5 = development of e=mc2, • 6 = confirmation of e=mc2 • Nominate a recorder, facilitator, data person, speaker. • WRITE CATEGORY ON TOP OF CARD. • One scientist per notecard. • Fill in Year, NAME, Nationality, Concept, Experiment(s), Challenges Faced. • These cards will go on timeline from 1700 to 1950. • Your team will present your cards. • Presentations Last 10 minutes of class. Each team 2 minutes! • YOU WILL BE GRADED ON YOUR PARTICIPATION AS YOU WORK!
2/6/14 • Exit Task • NONE – presentations for timeline. • TURN IN YOUR NOTES on the way out of class…
2/7/14 • Entry Task • Say Something Nice • HW – Turn in. • Turn in Einstein Notes. • Turn in Entry/Exit Task Sheet
Today’s Agenda • Finish any presentations from yesterday. • Take Unit 4 Pre Test • Complete the self-assessment side of the Unit Map “blue sheet”– • Rate yourself 1-4 on each of the standards in the “start unit” column
2/7/14 • Exit Task • Trade and Grade • Please turn in your Entry/Exit task sheet for the week.
2/10/14Week of 2/10 to 2/14 • Entry Task • Describe the charges and relative locations of the particles in an atom. HINT: there are 3 particles. • Per 3 and 4 – finish presentations • Per 1,3,4,6 – finish pretests • http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/how-the-higgs-boson-was-found-4723520/
Today’s Agenda • Mystery Boxes • Notes on Atomic Structure.
Mystery Boxes – in your comp books • Purpose • Use the mystery boxes as models to demonstrate how scientists comprehend the existence and structure of the atom without actually seeing all its parts.
Problem-Solve: Technological Design Process • Challenge: What else would you do to figure out what is inside the mystery boxes? • Constraints: You cannot take the boxes apart. Nor can you physically or chemically change them. • Describe SEVERAL solutions to the problem.
2/10/14 • Exit Task • CANCELLED – for mystery boxes
2/11/14 • Entry Task • Draw and label a NITROGEN “square” from the periodic table. • How many protons does each atom have? How many electrons?
Unit 4 Maps and Goals – “blue sheet” • Complete your self-assessment for “start unit” • Graph your pre-test percentage. • Set goals for post-assessment. • Write down the TOP 3 standards you will need to focus on. (These are the ones you feel the least confident about). • Hold onto these until the end of the unit….
Today’s Agenda • Finish Atomic Structure Notes.
2/11/14 • Exit Task • Consider the periodic table… • Which element has just 1 proton? • Which element has 2 protons?
2/12/14 • Entry Task • Draw and label an atom of Boron. Include all protons, neutrons and electrons. Assume it has no charge.
Today’s Agenda • Finish atomic structure notes. • Atomic Structure Worksheet
History • Dalton • atoms could not be divided • all atoms of a given element are the same • different atoms could join to form LOTS of compounds • Thomson • the plum pudding model • negatively-charged "plums” surrounded by • positively-charged "pudding” • Rutherford http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/essentialchemistry/flash/ruther14.swf • atom is made up of a central charge surrounded by a cloud of orbiting electrons • Bohr • electrons are in levels around the nucleus • Quantum theory says that when things get very small, like the size of an atom, matter and energy do not obey Newton’s laws or other laws of classical physics. • An electron appears in a wave-like “cloud and has no definite position.
A 1946 test of an atomic bomb in the lagoon at Bikini atoll. The explosion has just started; surplus ships moored nearby can still be seen.
The nucleus • the center of the atom composed of protons and neutrons • held together by four forces (electromagnetic, strong , weak, and gravity) • 99.9% of the atom’s mass is here • about 100,000 times smaller than the entire atom • the atomic numberof an atom is the number of protons in the nucleus • the atomic mass or mass number of an atom is the sum of the protons and neutrons
Isotopes atoms with the same number of protons (and therefore the same element) but with a different number of neutrons.
Extra neutrons creates an isotope, what about more or less electrons? • IONS: • An atom that has an electric charge other than zero, created when an atom gains or loses electrons.
2/12/14 • Exit Task • INFORMATION: 6 protons, 7 neutrons, 6 electrons. • Which element? • Ion, Isotope or common form of the atom?
2/13/14 • Entry Task • Draw and label an isotope of Boron which has 6 neutrons. Include all protons, neutrons and electrons. • Any questions on Atomic Structure WS? This will be due TOMORROW – Friday Feb 14th.