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correlation. Are two variables related?. 1. Do they move together or opposite ?. 2. How strongly?. (if they are strongly related, we can predict one from the other). correlation coefficient. NO ASSN. NEGATIVE. POSITIVE. -1.00 0 +1.00.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1
correlation

Are two variables related?

1. Do they move together or opposite?

2. How strongly?

(if they are strongly related, we can predict one from the other)

slide2
correlation coefficient

NO ASSN

NEGATIVE

POSITIVE

-1.00 0 +1.00

= direction

+ / -

number

= strength

slide3
sign (+ or -)

move together or opposite?

positive

correlation

+

negative

correlation

-

slide4
positive correlation

Variable 1

Variable 2

# of shoes you own

amt of credit card debt

move together, in same direction

slide5
correlational studies

POSITIVE

NEGATIVE

NO ASSN

slide6
Are shy people happy?

To a group of people, give a questionnaire about their degree of shyness.

To this same group, give a questionnaire about their degree of happiness.

Each person has two scores. Use correlation.

Is there a relationship between shyness & happiness? (Did one cause the other?)

slide7
correlational studies

Correlation is NOT causation!

B

A

B

A

A

C

B

slide8
example

Variable 1

Variable 2

ice cream sales

violent crime

Ice cream sales positively correlate with the occurrence of violent crime.

e.g.

slide9
example

Variable 1

Variable 2

# parties at your house

# of friends linked at Facebook

# parties at your house positively correlate with # of friends linked at Facebook

e.g.

slide10
correlation coefficient

NO ASSN

NEGATIVE

POSITIVE

-1.00 0 +1.00

= direction

+ / -

= strength

number

weak (0 - .40)

moderate (.41 - .69)

strong (.70 – 1.00)

slide11
correlation coefficient

NO ASSN

NEGATIVE

POSITIVE

-1.00 0 +1.00

= direction

+ / -

= strength

number

slide12
correlation coefficient

NO ASSN

NEGATIVE

POSITIVE

-1.00 0 +1.00

= direction

+ / -

= strength

number

slide13
real examples

Variable 1

Variable 2

+.90

height of twin #1

height of twin #2

+.50

marriage problems

behavioral problems in children

+.45

height of sister #1

height of sister #2

+.20

exposure to violent media

real-life violent behavior

-.40

amt of social support

frequency of illness

slide14
experimental research

Hypothesis:

Systematic desensitization therapy eliminates phobias.

DEPENDENT VARIABLE

INDEPENDENT

VARIABLE

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