Health Care Industry How it evolved
History of Health Care • History of Medicine • Early Healing-First evidence dates back 5,000 years ago in Egypt and Mesopotamia in the form of incantations, exorcisms, prayers to the gods, etc. • Provided by females • First medications-opium and caster oil by the Egyptians
Ancient Chinese • Yin/Yang=balance. • Example • Male female • Hot and cold • Death and life
Ancient Greeks Humour Theory • 4 humours control the health of humans • Blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile • Nature governed by earth, air, fire and water.
Ancient Greeks continued • Hippocrates- • Theorized that illness was a natural biological event and the body would heal itself naturally given time. • Hippocratic Oath- guidelines for the patient/physician relationship
Anton Van Leewenhoek • 1683 Described bacteria
Edward Jenner • 1796 Created an inoculation for small pox
Louis Pasteur • 1864 Developed the Germ Theory
Dr. Ignaz Semmelweiss • (1818-1865) Discovered the importance of infection control measures
Joseph Lister • 1867 Used antiseptics for surgery
Alexander Flemming • 1928 Discovered penicillin
Evolution of Health Care in the U.S. • 1850- Development of the first hospitals in Boston and New York. • 1940’s U.S. underwent major changes in social, political and technological developments.
Results of Changes in 1940’s • A growing interest in social and organizational structure in health care. • Development of Blue Cross and Blue Shield as a method of payment. • Federal government involvement in delivery of health care increased. • Hill-Burton Act: approved and directed funds for new hospital construction • Creation of Medicare
1940s - 1980s, 1980s - present • Continued growth in health care • Since 1980’s • limited resources • restricted growth • reorganization of delivery and financing • increase in technology
Evolution of Health Problems in U.S. • 1850-1900 Epidemics related to contaminated food, water, inadequate housing, sewage disposal. • 1900-1940 Instead of acute infectious diseases, chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes.
Health Problems continued • 1940’s to 1990-Conditions largely due to environment, such as cancer, accidents, etc. • 1990’s-present- Conditions due to life style, such as drug use, hygiene, eating habits, etc.
Evolution of Technology • 1850-1900-If patient recovered from an illness, it was due to will power and nature taking it’s course, not from medical care. • Physicians were poorly trained. • Hospitals were dirty and run down, disease ridden and posed a threat to life.
Technology continued • 1900-1940 • Vitamin deficiency diseases were eliminated. • Heart disease better treated. • Physicians better trained. • 1940-1980 • Technology expansion rapid and expansive. • Physicians became specialized. • Specialized training for nursing and allied health
Technology continued • 1980-2000- • Organ transplants, MRI, CAT, laser surgeries, gene mapping. • 2000 and beyond • Health care a right or a privilege? • Ethical questions with gene mapping.
Problems with Advanced Technology • Evaluation of effectiveness of technology lags behind. • Excessive cost • Access is not universal, due to cost. • Health care workers are knowledgeable in technology but have problems with human/personal touch.