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Spain, France & Netherlands. Thanks to Columbus, Spain had a jump on other Europeans in occupying the Americas. Spain reaped unbelievable wealth—but also displayed a most wanton cruelty on the native peoples—after their conquests of Mexico and Peru, wealth petered out. Became a settler society.

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spain france netherlands
Spain, France & Netherlands
  • Thanks to Columbus, Spain had a jump on other Europeans in occupying the Americas.
  • Spain reaped unbelievable wealth—but also displayed a most wanton cruelty on the native peoples—after their conquests of Mexico and Peru, wealth petered out. Became a settler society.
  • Native peoples were treated as a curiosity, then as a workforce, then as a threat militarily
  • Once this initial phase of conquest came to a close, King Charles was not about to allow these peasant conquistador to set themselves up on thrones in the New world and rival the aristocrats of Spain;
  • Spanish government moved in establishing Viceroys creating order with deference to the Spanish Crown;
  • Viceroys ensured that millions of dollars with of precious metals made it to the coffers of Spain
  • Spain’s failed attempts to repeat the successes of the Conquistadors forced a re-assessment.
  • Spanish settlement of Mexico, the pacific Coast and South America eventually required the institutions of formal governments subservient to the Spanish crown.
  • This called for an organization of their society, but also of the native peoples societies, which they conquered.
  • Spain moved through three stages: enslavement, dislocation, and confrontation (Pueblo Revolt).
  • The deadliest enemies, however, was European diseases.
  • Enslavement was literal enslavement and also the introduction of Africans into the America’s;
  • They also practiced indirect enslavement such as enacting the Encomendero.
  • Rather than killing the Indians or enslaving them physically, they carved large estates out of Indian lands and forced service and taxes upon the neighboring Indian villages
  • 2) Practiced dislocation—brutally suppressed traditional native cultures and enforced the acceptance of Spanish culture; also moved Indians from traditional ancestral lands and forced them into peonage.
  • 3) Inevitably, last pahse of confrontation—many tribes fought back and resisted the cultural assimilation, slave labor, and Spanish religious practices—some tribes chose annihilation by war rather than annihilation by assimilation.
  • Still without the silent “Angel of Death” disease the Indians may have been able to turn back the European tide—
  • Europeans devastated by centuries of diseases such as typhus, small pox, cholera, plague—millions died, but many others established a resistance and immunity—enough to survive
  • Native peoples had no resistance or immunity. Even Friars trying to be fair and conscientious also were vessels of death—there are some estimates that around 60 to 70% of the Mesoamericans perished because of European diseases.
notable spaniards
Notable Spaniards
  • Juan Ponce de Leon mapped the coast of Florida—searched for the Fountain of Youth; Indians killed him.
  • Hernando de Soto landed at Tampa, moved up into Georgia, met the Cherokees, went west to the Mississippi river, died of fever- he found roads, towns, farms and temples with the Cherokees, but no gold
notable spaniards1
Notable Spaniards
  • Francisco de Coronado—pursued the rumors of the Great Seven Cities of Cibola; He also searched for “Quivira” but found only Kansas—discovered the Grand Canyon.
  • Cabeza de Vaca captured in central Fla. Held captive along with a black mercenary Esteban—palmed themselves off as healers traveled for 8 yrs and over 1300 miles before bumping into a Spanish patrol in western New Mexico.
  • Though Spain became a world power—it soon mismanaged itself into a third world country and by financing its wars of conquest in Europe—the wars failed as did the treasury.
  • France emerged from the 16th century religious civil wars as master of Europe—the “Sun King” Louis XIV—wanted to emulate the new world bonanza as had Spain;
  • By 1500 France was exploring the Mississippi valley and Canada.
  • France early was interested in the New World; Religious wars prevented them from being to aggressive.
  • Protestant and catholic brutalities such as the St Bartholomew’s day Massacre of Protestants and also of assassinations of catholic Priests and leaders. King Henry IV changed this by officially becoming catholic, but not spiritually—calmed everyone.
  • To re-build France’s fortunes quickly Henry looked toward the New World.
  • The King Francis I hired Cartier to explore a northwest passage and find Gold.
  • In 1535, Jacques Cartier, pushed up the St. Lawrence to the headwaters of the Mississippi;
  • But failed at permanent settlement; but his travels encouraged other Frenchmen to also attempt.
  • Samuel de Champlain succeeded in building a fort and the first French settlement along the St. Lawrence river at Quebec—exploit the fur trade (Beaver Fur hats).
  • Robert La Salle explored the Gulf Coast and began French settlements along the Gulf and the mouth of the Mississippi.
  • Champlain set the pattern of White-Indian military conflict with the Northeastern woodlands peoples. He initiated the use of firearms and forming alliances with one tribe against another.
  • Yet, they did not succeed in developing a strong settler society; they did establish a principle of religious proselytizing of the native Peoples;
  • French forbade emigration of religious dissidents—wanted to spread Catholicism not tolerance. More Priests went to America—the Jesuits—most settlement had more males than women—tough life.
  • French adventurism and religious wars drained the population of potential settlers—so France lagged in settling or gaining a true foothold in America—for the time being.
the dutch
The Dutch
  • 17th century saw the meteoric rise of the Dutch—a commercial world power—They were very tolerant of religions and politics;
  • Newly independent of Spanish rule with much unproductive land—they turned to the sea and commercialization—also became a Banking and Financial empire for Europe.
  • Dutch East India Company financed explorations, expeditions and settlements to India, China and America—Created New Netherlands on the Hudson bay and River in 1609 (New York).
  • Hired Henry Hudson to find the Northwest passage to the orient;
  • He identified a large navigable River, big enough to appear to cross a continent—The Hudson River;
  • Followed it, but it carried him deeper into the vastness of interior America; with no passage—
  • Dutch decide to corner or grab a lion’s share mof th Fur trade with the Iroquois—sell Iroquois firearms and European technology in turn for Beaver pelts
the dutch1
The Dutch
  • Main Dutch settlement was at New Amsterdam, the immediate goal was the market exploitation of the North American Fur Trade; No desires to convert Indians
  • Because of this New Amsterdam became the most culturally and ethnically diverse settlement in North America; they attracted a wide range of immigrants, practiced religious toleration, women practiced more rights than their counterparts in Europe or other colonies.
  • Quietly ignored the congregation of Jews, Quakers, and Prebyterians;
  • 18 different languages spoke in New Amsterdam;
  • Dutch women could own property, make contracts and do business—the business of New Amsterdam was Business.
  • Still, no one rivaled the success of the Spanish—