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Embryonic Stem Cells. By Martin Brothers. Background. Embryo- a beginning or undeveloped state of something Stem- a primary plant axis that develops buds and shoots instead of roots Cells- the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently

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embryonic stem cells

Embryonic Stem Cells

By Martin Brothers

background
Background

Embryo- a beginning or undeveloped state of something

Stem- a primary plant axis that develops buds and shoots instead of roots

Cells- the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently

  • Four Major Branches of Embryonic Stem Cells
    • Hematopoietic
    • Mesenchymal
    • Endodermal
    • Neural

Definitions taken from Merriam-Webster Dictionary

history
History
  • Scientists discovered how to extract embryonic stem cells from mice in the early 1980’s
  • Martin Evans and Matthew Kaufman
    • university of Cambridge
    • published their method of growing embryos within the uterus of mice in the early 1980s
  • James Thomson
    • University of Madison
    • the discovery of how to extract embryonic stem cells from human embryos was in 1998
    • a technique to isolate and grow ES cells in cell culture
characteristics
Characteristics
  • 4 main characteristics to an Embryonic Stem Cell
    • They Self Renew: Biologic Immortality
    • They differentiate:produce220 different specialized cells
    • They Migrate
    • They Repair DNA: from radiation damage
self renewal
Self Renewal
  • Definition: Reproduction of stem cells into large quantities
  • 2 ways of separating stem cells, therefore maintaining the stem cells’ population
  • Obligatory asymmetric replication
    • Stem cell that divides into father cell that is identical to original cell, and a daughter cell that is differentiated
  • Stochastic differentiation
    • Stem cell develops into two differentiated daughter cells, another stem cell undergoes mitosis and produces two cells identical to the original
differentiate
Differentiate
  • Stem Cells can differentiate into over 220 specialized cell
    • Pluripotent cells: the cells a stem cell can differentiate too
  • Differentiation occurs in the development of an embryo
    • Early on
  • Pluripotent Cells can form into any type of cell in the body
    • Useful for cell therapy
migrate
Migrate
  • The movement of stem cells to different parts of the body had been crucial to:
    • Organization of an embryonic body
    • Maintaining Homeostasis
  • Migration + Differentiation = very helpful
  • Stem Cells can migrate from solids to liquids
    • EX. Bone-marrow to blood
  • Homing- the active navigation of a stem cell in the body
dna repair
DNA Repair
  • DNA Repair protects the stem cells from genetic damage
    • Fixes damaged DNA after Chemotherapy and Radiation
    • Prolongs the life of DNA
  • Stem Cells can transform into cancerous cells
    • During Chemotherapy Stem Cells can be accidentally attacked
    • Chemotherapy attacks rapidly reproducing cells which is what the Stem Cells are doing because of the repair
hscs hematopoietic
HSCs (Hematopoietic)
  • Cell that can be found in bone marrow or blood that can:
    • renew itself
    • mobilize out of bone marrow
    • “self-destruct”
  • Purpose: to restore proper cells in the blood and immune system
  • 2 types of HSCs
    • Immediate
    • Long Term
  • Hold Backs
    • Can’t replicate themselves on a Petri dish
    • Can’t become specialized to other cells
mscs mesenchymal
MSCs (Mesenchymal)
  • multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including:
    • osteoblasts (bone cells),
    • chondrocytes (cartilage cells),
    • adipocytes (fat cells)
  • Stromal cells
    • Connective tissue cells that form supporting structures for the functional cells
escs endodermal
ESCs (Endodermal)
  • Cells found in the digestive tract and lungs
    • Gut
    • Lung
    • pancreas
  • Diabetes
    • Used as a supply of insulin in diabetes
    • Can help save many people if used properly
  • Cells derived from endoderm are of significant interest for many regenerative medicine purposes
  • Endodermal differentiation strategies involve guiding cells through sequential, staged protocols
    • Mimic early embryonic signaling events
    • 30–40% cells expressing endodermal markers
nscs neural
NSCs {Neural)
  • self-renewing, multipotent cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system
  • Usually differentiate into neurons, astrocytes (brain cells), and oligodendrocytes (brain cells)
  • Undergo cell division (symmetric) into 2 daughter cells:
    • specialized
    • non-specialized
cancer stem cells
cancer Stem Cells
  • Have similar characteristics to normal stem cells
    • Can differentiate to all cell types
    • Renew very quickly
  • CSCs may generate tumors through the stem cell processes of self-renewal
  • Treatment
    • Stem Cells are immune to chemotherapeutic treatment
    • Treatment can consist of using an aggressive drug
      • Dangerous and untested
sites used
Sites Used
  • http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/stem%20cells
    • Definitions for embryonic, stem and cell
  • http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/Pages/Default.aspx
    • Overall Basics, Cancer info, and Self Renewal
  • http://outreach.mcb.harvard.edu/animations/preloaderStemCells.swf
    • Differentiation
  • www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2010/845396/abs/
    • DNA Repair
  • www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21618090
    • Migration
  • http://www.pnas.org/content/102/14/5227.full
    • Major Branches of Stem Cells