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Army Battle Command System Overview

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  1. Army Battle Command SystemOverview 13 March 2002 Marie Collins mcollins@mitre.org 732-389-5691 Pete Dugan pdugan@mitre.org 732-389-6701

  2. XX III XX II II X II II X X II X II II II Background: Digitization “Digitization will enable the Army of the 21st Century to win the information war and provide deciders, shooters, and supporters the information each needs to make the vital decisions necessary to overwhelm and overcome their adversary and win the overall campaign.” Major General Joe Rigby Commander’s Intent and Assessment Situation Awareness Directives Intelligence. and Engagement Data Combat Service Support

  3. Tactical Internet Communications BDE TOC DIV TOC • Upper Echelon Communications • Much greater bandwidth required forABCS, VTC, collaborative planning, ... • Primarily point-point communications between TOCs MSE ATM BDE TOC Router-based architecture BN TOC BDE TOC NTDR BN TOC BN TOC • Lower Echelon Communications • Much lower bandwidth limits traffic toJVMF (bit oriented) messages • Primarily broadcast/multicast communicationsbetween vehicles • Much greater mobility required EPLRS SIP • Based on the standards and architecture used in the Internet

  4. The Army Battle Command System

  5. ABCS: Past, Present, and Future ABCS 6.2 ABCS 7.0 Centralized Model: TOC server provides common services Inter-TOC Network BAS BAS Inter-TOC Network Light Client Common Svcs Common Svcs BAS BAS TOC Server BAS Peer-2-Peer Model: Everyone is a server BAS Common Svcs BAS BAS Common Svcs Common Svcs BAS Light Client ABCS 8.0 Component Model: TOC server hosts the BAS Components ABCS 9.0 (FCS) Integrated Model: Server hosts integrated BAS Systems Inter-TOC Network Inter-TOC Network BAS Server TOC Server BAS BA BA BAS BA BAS BAS BA BA Light Client Light Client Light Client Light Client Light Client Light Client

  6. JOINT CHIEFS & DEFENSE DEPARTMENT GCCS GCCS-A dB dB files files dB files files dB dB dB files files dB files dB dB files files files dB THEATER OF OPERATIONS XXXX XXXX XXXX ARMY CJTF JTF OTHER SERVICES/ SYSTEMS GCCS-A MCS AMDWS AFATDS ATCCS CSSCS ASAS FBCB2 MCS Overview MISSION:MCS is the Army Battle Command System's (ABCS) Functional Subsystem that directly supports the combined arms force commander and staff by providing automated support for planning, coordinating, controlling and using maneuver functional area assets and tasks. The System coordinates and synchronizes the supporting arms in the conduct of operational planning, field operations and training. • Create and manage the Common Tactical Picture • Enhance and shorten the decision-making cycle across the operational continuum • Respond to the Commander’s Critical Information Requirements (CCIRs) • Supervise execution of operations • Integrate information from other ABCS, joint and combined systems • Enhance planning operations and the OPORD process • Operate in the tactical and garrison environments

  7. CHS-2 HCU or VCU 333 or 440 MHz CPU Removable SCSI 18GB (HCU), 14 GB (VCU) or larger hard disk 256 MB RAM Solaris 7.0 SUN PCI Card MCS-Light compatible software 333 MHz CPU or better laptop computer 750 MB free hard-drive space 128 MB RAM Windows NT 4 or Windows 2000 Office 97 or 2000 Internet Explorer 5.0 or higher Acrobat Reader 3.0 or higher MCS Hardware MCS-Light MCS-Heavy

  8. MCS Functional Summary • Acts as a gateway between Battle Command systems and Echelon Above Corps Systems • Mapping and routing between different architectures • Common tactical picture (CTP) • Receive information from reporting platforms and manage the common tactical picture • Manage Overlays from other functional overlays • Enhance planning operations and the OPORD process • Provide an ability to see the plan in action • Overlays indicate planned positions • Alerts to Commander’s Critical Information Requirements (CCIRs) • Commander’s track specific items • Alert operator when some condition occurs • Provides the task organization • Organizes units to perform a mission

  9. MCS Enhancements • Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) • More use of CORBA internal to MCS • Extensible Information Systems (XIS) • Data Source Interface (XML, SQL, etc to common format) • Info-aware Java Bean • Java Common Tactical Picture (J2EE) • Web services • Symbology manager • XML • Informix Enterprise Replicator (IER) • Used to replicate the common database across the network

  10. MCS Security Functionality • Security is not designed into MCS • Security is provided through use of IA tools (TCP Wrappers, SPI, SWATCH) for MCS Heavy (UNIX) only • IA Tools as a security overlay • No mechanism for remote configuration or monitoring of IA tools • Alerts remain on the local host • Use of OS security guidance • UNIX configuration guidance is followed • Currently applying Windows 2000 security guidance

  11. MCS Security Operations Suite • TCP Wrapper: Prevents external intrusion via FTP, invalid CORBA clients, ‘cracking’ the network, etc. • Change Detection Tool: Verifies integrity of executable files and scripts by monitoring exact file size and date • Swatch: Monitors Log files for suspicious or invalid events • McAfee: Virus Scanner

  12. MCS IA Issues/Challenges • Currently no mechanism to enforce a security policy across MCS systems ( UNIX/NT) • Data proponency/access control not addressed • Authentication of messages is critical • Numerous challenges with use of PKI in tactical environment • Alert analysis and response needs to be automated, and addressed to the host level to determine mission impact

  13. FBCB2 Overview The principal Digital Command and Control System for the Army at Brigade and Below. Consists of ruggedized COTS Appliqué hardware consisting of a 500 MHZ Pentium computer with 128 MB RAM and a 4 Gbyte Hard disk and a USB port. No external media (CD or floppy disk) is included. FBCB2 software provides Situational Awareness, C2 messaging and Battle Command tools. Integrated into most platforms at Brigade and below, as well as appropriate Division and Corps slices necessary to support Brigade operations. Interconnects platforms through a communications infrastructure called the Tactical Internet, based on commercial IP and made up of existing EPLRS and SINCGARS radios and the INC router.

  14. FBCB2 Enhancements • Pure IP Networking • Challenge: Agents specific to radio nets • Benefit: Network/Comms independence • XML based message processing • Challenge: Bit oriented messages (JVMF) • Benefit: Flexibility, format, open standards • Database merge capability • Challenge: Databases take months to build • Benefit: Capability to merge databases • More platform independence • Solaris X86 currently • Migrating to Linux possibly Windows • Lynxs Real Time OS

  15. Dismounts Iridium MILSATCOM Sanctuary CONUS PDA PDA Wireless LAN PDA PDA

  16. FBCB2 Security Functions • Most network protocols disabled • ftp • http • Software security protection to prevent uncleared users from receiving secret data. • Password protection • Investigating use of Biometrics • Remote disable • Lockout • Zeroize • Security extensions protocol to allow for use of digital signatures for security messages only ( remote disable) • Security logs • Closed System • No external media • No console windows

  17. FBCB2 IA issues • Network is secret, uncleared users are required to use the systems on the network • Most systems are left unattended even though they should never be or run the risk of being overrun. Users have to be periodically re-authenticated. • Tradeoff between authentication process/security and user frustration interaction without confining movement • Use of Solaris X86 has limited the availability of add-on IA Tools • Port to LINUX may offer more options • Need authentication of all command and control messages • Dismounted (PDA) Purge tools • Flash memory • Determine that it has been compromised

  18. Questions??