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Reforming Secondary Education Challenges to Paradigms. Kai-ming Cheng Chair Professor of Education & Senior Advisor to the Vice-Chancellor University of Hong Kong Seminar on “Growth Strategies for Secondary Education in Asia” World Bank Malaysia, September 19, 2005.

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Reforming secondary education challenges to paradigms l.jpg

Reforming Secondary EducationChallenges to Paradigms

Kai-ming Cheng

Chair Professor of Education & Senior Advisor to the Vice-Chancellor

University of Hong Kong

Seminar on

“Growth Strategies for Secondary Education in Asia”

World Bank

Malaysia, September 19, 2005


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The literature: the missing part

  • Basic Education

  • Secondary Education

  • Vocational Education

  • Higher Education


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Secondary education: Why now?

The Contexts

  • Society: new workplace

  • Education: new developments

  • Learning: new understanding







Assumptions l.jpg
Assumptions

  • Large organizations

  • Parallel departments

  • Layers and ranks

  • Detailed division of labour

  • Tight structures

  • Rules and regulations

  • Credential-based recruitment

  • ……..


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Assumptions

  • Lifelong career

  • Long-term employment

  • Presumed loyalty

  • Upward mobility

  • Escalating incomes

  • Foreseeable future

  • Retirement aspirations

  • ……..


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People in Workplace: Industrial

  • People for specific jobs

  • People are specialised

  • People are ranked

  • People implement pre-set designs

  • People follow prescribed procedures

  • People abide by rules and regulations

  • People recruited by qualifications

  • ……



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Post-industrial: Large Organisations

Project Groups

Task Forces

Production Teams

Client Groups

“Accounts”

Deal Team




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Post-industrial: Workplace

Project Groups/Task Forces

Small Enterprises

Free-lancers

The Civil Service


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Post-industrial: Workplace

  • Small organisation

  • Flat organisations

  • Loose organisations

  • Constant teamwork

  • Ill-defined labour division

  • Blurred specilization

  • …..


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Post-industrial: Individuals

  • Many free-lancers

  • Many unemployed

  • Frequent change of jobs

  • Frequent change of careers

  • Ever-changing networks

  • Frequent change of partners

  • ……..


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Post-industrial: Expectations

  • Communication

  • Learning on-demand, just-in-time

  • Team-work

  • Personal responsibilities

  • Solving problems

  • Integrating expertise

  • Self-disciplined & Self-management

  • Capacity to query, challenge, innovate

  • …….


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Then

Large & Pyramidal

Procedures, rules & regulations

Lifelong careers

Lifelong qualifications

Now

Small & flat

Communications & relations

Multiple careers

On-demand, just-in-time learning

Workplace & Society


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Implications for education

  • Drastic decrease of manual workers

  • Expanded need for higher education

  • Challenge to occupational identity

  • Intensified human interactions

  • Demand for more flexible learning modes and paths



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Then

For the selected

Leading to certification

Urban

Now

For the majority

Facing lifelong learning

Spreading to rural

Secondary Education:


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Then

Preparation for the next stage

Higher education

Jobs

Now

Preparation for life

Change in nature



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“Screening”

Chellenges

  • Rapid expansion of higher education

  • Unemployment among less-educated

  • Middle-age unemployment


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Net entry rate into tertiary education (Type A) for selected countries, 2000

Starting 1999

  • Europe: + 25%

  • China: +100%

  • Taiwan: oversupply

  • Korea: oversupply

  • Japan: near oversupply

  • Hong Kong: 66%

  • Singapore: 75%


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The question: selected countries, 2000

If every child should be given the opportunity to learn more,

what is the point of screening at secondary level?


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Challenges to “Screening” selected countries, 2000

Challenge to paradigms

  • Belief in innate ability

    • “There are smart kids and dumb kids”

  • Belief in using knowledge for screening

    • versus lifelong & multi-source learning

  • Belief in using single indicators (IQ)

    • versus multiple intelligence


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“Specialisation” selected countries, 2000

Challenges

  • Division of labour blurred

  • Frequent change of jobs & occupations

  • Job-study mismatch

  • Demand for generic competence

  • Diluted & delayed specialisation in higher education

  • ……


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Specialization in HE: Evolution selected countries, 2000

Generic Capacity Building

Common Core


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Specialization: Evolution in HE selected countries, 2000

  • Engineering: Washington Accord (30%)

  • Business Schools (50%)

  • Journalism schools (70%)

  • Europe: Bologna Process (3 + 2 + 2)

  • UK: Foundations Degree (2 + 3 + 3)

  • China: Fudan, Xian Jiaoda

Generic Capacity Building

Common Core


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Specialization: Bologna selected countries, 2000


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The question: selected countries, 2000

If higher education has delayed specialisation,

what is the point of specialisation at secondary level?


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“Specialisation” selected countries, 2000

Challenges to Paradigms

  • Belief that education is for classifying people

  • Belief in people’s occupational identity

  • Belief that education is more specialised at higher levels

  • ……


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“Teaching” selected countries, 2000

Challenges

  • Students also learn what are not taught

  • Students also learn from alternative sources

  • Technology has made acquisition of knowledge much easier


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The question: selected countries, 2000

If teacher is no longer the only source of knowledge, what is the new role for teachers?


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“Teaching” selected countries, 2000

Challenges to paradigms

  • Belief that learning is transmission of knowledge from those who know to those who don’t know

  • Belief that learning is about the known and not the unknown


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“Study” selected countries, 2000

Challenges

  • The expectation for good characters and personalities

  • The demand for human relational and social competence

  • The renewed importance for values, attitudes, emotions, ethics, principles, …

  • ………..


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The question selected countries, 2000

If society expects graduates to engage in more intensive human relations,

why is such not formally reflected in designed school-lives?


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“Study” selected countries, 2000

Challenges to Paradigms

  • Belief in academic study as proxy for learning

  • Belief in classroom learning as the only reliable learning

  • Belief in examination scores as the only trustworthy measure of human capacity

  • …..


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“Schooling” selected countries, 2000

Challenges

  • Call for flexible curriculum

  • Learning is recognised beyond institutions

    • Credit-unit Bank in Korea

    • Lifelong Learning Passport in Taiwan

  • Administrative considerations have taken over learning needs


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The question selected countries, 2000

If all organisations are becoming smaller and more flexible,

are schools also prepared to explore alternative ways of organisation?


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“Schooling” selected countries, 2000

Challenges to Paradigms

  • Belief that learning takes place only in schools

  • Belief that learning takes place only during structured activities

    • Classes, time-tables, subjects, specialised teachers, set menu curriculum,

  • Belief that learning should be under the control of schools and institutions


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Industrial selected countries, 2000

analytic, regulated, structured, clear-cut, uniform, convergent, normative, neat, assertive and reducible to parameters

Post-industrial

holistic, flexible, loose, fuzzy, plural, divergent, liberal, complex, speculative and tolerant of multiplex concepts

After all …


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Reform trends selected countries, 2000

  • Blurring subject boundaries

  • Creating diverse learning activities

  • Introducing “moral” elements

  • Reforming examinations

  • Alternative ways of organsing school learning


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Blurring subject boundaries selected countries, 2000

Beyond

Classrooms

Beyond

Campus

Cyber-Space

  • Key-Learning Areas (Hong Kong)

  • Co-curriculum/After School Education

  • Reduction of formal curriculum

    • Japan 30%

    • Singapore 33%

  • Rise of International Baccalaureate

Classrooms


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Diverse Learning Experiences selected countries, 2000

International Exchange

Visits to Rural, Deprived Communities

Community Services/NGO

Internship, Placement, Mentorship

Design, Music, Drama, Sports

Executives of Organisations

Student Organisations, residence

Study

Classes


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Diverse Learning selected countries, 2000Experiences

Learning across Cultures

Learning to Care

Learning to Serve

Creativity Learning

Workplace Learning

Leadership Learning

Alternative Learning

Academic

Knowledge

Classes


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  • Tacit Knowledge selected countries, 2000

  • Social Competence

  • Values Education

  • Civic Education

  • Character Education

  • Personality Education

  • Moral Education

Learning across Cultures

Learning to Care

Learning to Serve

Creativity Learning

Workplace Learning

Leadership Learning

Alternative Learning

Academic

Knowledge

Classes


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Music, Sports, Art, Drama, Dance selected countries, 2000

Mentorship

Learning cross cultures

Student Residence, Student Unions, Associations & Clubs, Young Leaders

Rural Visits, NGOs, Community Services, Church

Learning to care

Learning to serve

Workplace Learning

Creativity Learning

Internship, Practicum, Placement, Fieldwork

Leadership Learning

Learning to live together

Classrooms, Libraries, Laboratories

Academic Learning

Classes

Exchange, Youth Conferences


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Reforming Examinations selected countries, 2000

Student Portfolios


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Conventional Classes selected countries, 2000

Learning Communities

Alternative organisations


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M selected countries, 2000

School

A

S

Teachers


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After all … selected countries, 2000

We are facing

Diversity, Uncertainty, Change, …

Plus

Learning anywhere, anytime


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Knowledge acquisition selected countries, 2000

Personal development

?

?


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Thank you selected countries, 2000

Contact:

kmcheng@hku.hk