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On Farm Salmonella Control for the Broiler Industry – A U.S. Perspective. J. Stan Bailey 1 USDA, Agricultural Research Service Athens, Georgia Phone: (706)546-3356 email: jsbailey@saa.ars.usda.gov. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Food Safety and Inspection Service

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on farm salmonella control for the broiler industry a u s perspective

On Farm Salmonella Control for the Broiler Industry – A U.S. Perspective

J. Stan Bailey

1 USDA, Agricultural Research Service

Athens, Georgia

Phone: (706)546-3356

email: jsbailey@saa.ars.usda.gov

u s department of agriculture
U.S. Department of Agriculture
  • Food Safety and Inspection Service
  • Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
  • Agricultural Research Service
    • 31+ years experience
    • 15 years in processing plant
    • 2 years feed
    • 14 years on farm
u s poultry facts
U.S. poultry facts
  • The U.S. industry grows in excess of 8.5 Billion broilers a year
  • 80 + million broiler breeders
  • About 100,000 broiler houses
  • About 85 pounds per person per year consumed in the U.S. (+ 15% export market)
u s broiler industry salmonella status
U.S. broiler industry Salmonella status
  • Mid to late 1990’s Pathogen reduction HACCP baseline studies – 20% (+)
  • Recent years – 11 to 13% (+)
why the reduction
Why the reduction?
  • Elevated levels of chlorine in chill tank (40%) with proper pH control of chill water
  • Secondary antimicrobial treatment in inside/outside bird washer
  • Improved Salmonella status of breeder stock and hatchery sanitation
slide8

Sweden and Denmark have instituted effective on-farm intervention programs. However, the size and maturity of the U.S. industry would be very expensive and will make implementation of these exact programs difficult

swedish control program for salmonella in broilers
Swedish control program for Salmonella in broilers
  • Very simple program for a small industry which was even smaller when program started
    • No Salmonella in breeder flocks/chicks
    • Eradicate all positive breeders
    • Eliminate Salmonella from all feed
    • Have active surveillance program to monitor Salmonella status at all times at all levels
    • Have active government input to process
  • NOSalmonella positive chicken allowed to be sold.
scientific principals of swedish program
Scientific principals of Swedish program
  • If broilers are never exposed to Salmonella then they cannot become colonized and subsequently they will not be contaminated after processing.
  • Primary method of control is eradication of Salmonella positive breeders or broilers
  • Control Salmonella on farm. No chemical treatments in the processing plant.
sweden status
Sweden status
  • All fresh processed broilers sold are Salmonella negative. EU has allowed this as a restrictive trade barrier.
  • Industry under pressure from “non-fresh” imports which do not have to be Salmonella negative and are usually less expensive.
  • Industry is under intense economic pressures to remain competitive, partially as a result of increased costs to produce Salmonella negative products.
danish control program for salmonella in broilers
Danish control program for Salmonella in broilers
  • Similar program to Sweden
    • Control in breeder flocks
    • Control in feed
    • Active surveillance program
  • Salmonella positive chickens are allowed to be sold
denmark status
Denmark status
  • Less than 2% of broilers now Salmonella positive
  • Control responsibilities turned over to industry in 2003. They working to finalize an insurance system similar to that used in Sweden.
scientific principals of danish control program
Scientific principals of Danish control program
  • Similar to Sweden model where all treatments are on the farm relying on principal that if chickens are never exposed to Salmonella then they cannot become contaminated.
  • Principal difference between Sweden and Denmark is that in Denmark only breeders are killed and indemnified, broilers which test positive for Salmonella are scheduled for special processing times.
  • Salmonella negative labeling is allowed.
the rest of europe
The rest of Europe
  • Control programs ?
  • Reported Salmonella levels in poultry. Similar to U.S. figures or in some cases higher than in U.S.
u s issues with northern european practices
U.S. issues with northern European practices
  • Breeder eradication program is not economically feasible in a large, mature industry
  • Broiler eradication program is not economically feasible
  • Potential exists for control of feeds, but will be difficult because of size of industry and number of facilities involved
current us status
Current US status
  • It is highly unlikely that the government will assume any costs in development of a new Salmonella reduction program
  • Unless federal regulations are changed the industry will not likely adopt changes that are cost prohibitive or put them at a competitive disadvantage
scientific principals of proposed us model
Scientific principals of proposed US model
  • Work to achieve similar results to Sweden and Denmark in a more cost effective manner.
  • Rather than eradicate breeders and/or broilers, use other intervention treatments to achieve similar results.
  • Vaccination (breeders), competitive exclusion and increased biosecurity are principal components of the proposed model
best management practices for control of salmonella in u s poultry industry
Best Management Practices for Control of Salmonella in U.S. Poultry Industry
  • Breeders:
    • Salmonella-free chicks
    • Competitive exclusion treatments
    • Vaccination program
    • Biosecurity
      • Rodent and insect control program
      • Footbaths / movement of workers
best management practices for control of salmonella in u s poultry industry20
Best Management Practices for Control of Salmonella in U.S. Poultry Industry
  • Feed
    • Attempt to control quality of ingredients
    • Sufficient time in conditioner to give time/temperature/moisture for Salmonella kill
    • Control post pelleting (processing) recontamination. Pay particular attention to cooling area
best management practices for control of salmonella in u s poultry industry21
Best Management Practices for Control of Salmonella in U.S. Poultry Industry
  • Hatchery
    • Enforce cleaning/sanitation program
    • Control air movement in hatchery
    • Institute chemical disinfection program in hatch cabinets during hatch period
    • Do not reuse tray liners
best management practices for control of salmonella in u s poultry industry22
Best Management Practices for Control of Salmonella in U.S. Poultry Industry
  • Grow-out
    • Salmonella-free chicks
    • Competitive exclusion treatments
    • Moisture control (no leaking nipple drinkers)
    • Proper working ventilation system (reduce stress on birds – litter amendments if necessary)
    • Rodent and insect control program
    • Limit movement of workers / visitors
best management practices for control of salmonella in u s poultry industry23
Best Management Practices for Control of Salmonella in U.S. Poultry Industry
  • Transport
    • Insist on proper feed and water withdrawyl time
    • Clean transport coops [more work needs to be done]
    • To extent possible limit time in transport cages
conclusions
Conclusions:
  • Experience has shown that the best way to control pathogens in food systems is to control the pathogens on the farm and prevent them from ever entering the processing plant.
  • Costs of these control programs can be highly variable.
  • Costs can be direct or indirect and in some instances actually will save money in the cost of production of animals.
slide25

Food Safety starts on the farm and these on-farm efforts will greatly influence everything else that must be done during the processing and distribution of foods.