chapter 16
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Chapter 16

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 25

Chapter 16 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 117 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 16. Scientific Revolution. What developments contributed to the Scientific Revolution?. Renaissance humanists mastered Greek and were then open to works of Galen, Ptolemy , Archimedes, Plato

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 16' - neith


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter 16

Chapter 16

Scientific Revolution

what developments contributed to the scientific revolution
What developments contributed to the Scientific Revolution?
  • Renaissance humanists mastered Greek and were then open to works of Galen, Ptolemy, Archimedes, Plato
  • Renaissance artists’ close observation of nature established new standards for the study of natural phenomena
    • Painters needed knowledge of geometry and anatomy
    • Da Vinci declared mathematics integral to artists
  • Proliferation of books spurred innovation
    • Telescope, microscope
  • Hermeticism(divinity is in all aspects of nature, magic, mysticism) inspired astrology and alchemy
group project
Group Project
  • Seven groups (2-3)
  • You and your partner (or partners) will select a committee from the list to give a brief report on
  • Summarize how your topic played a part in Scientific Revolution and the emergence of modern science
  • The report is to be two minutes and done with…
  • Sock puppets!
topics
Topics
  • Astronomy
  • Newton
  • Medicine
  • Women
  • Scientific Method
  • Science & Religion
  • Spread of Science
astronomy
Astronomy

Presentation

greatest achievements in sci revolution astronomy mechanics medicine
Greatest Achievements in Sci Revolution: Astronomy, Mechanics, Medicine
  • Ptolemaic Conception: geocentric, earth at the center
    • Earth is made of earth, air, fire, water and always changing
    • Spheres that surround earth are crystalline, transparent, and move in circular orbits (Aristotle said circle=most perfect)
    • 10 bodies in all, our universe was finite with God/Heaven beyond
greatest achievements in sci revolution astronomy mechanics medicine1
Greatest Achievements in Sci Revolution: Astronomy, Mechanics, Medicine
  • Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) polish mathematician – not astronomer- used old models, own computations
    • On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
      • Heliocentric conception- sun in center, planets revolve around sun, moon revolves around Earth
      • Kept circular orbits
      • Waited until deathbed to publish, scared and embarrassed
    • Created uncertainty about human role in universe & God’s location
    • Protestants reacted harshly based on literal translation of Bible
greatest achievements in sci revolution astronomy mechanics medicine2
Greatest Achievements in Sci Revolution: Astronomy, Mechanics, Medicine
  • Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
    • Compiled detailed records of observations and movements of stars and planets
    • Rejected Aristotelian-Ptolemaic system
    • Unable to accept Copernicus
  • Johannes Kepler(1571-1630)
    • Brahe’s assistant
    • Three laws
      • Orbits not circular but elliptical
      • Speed of planet is greater when it is closer to sun (disproved Aristotle’s idea that motion is steady and fixed)
      • Planets with larger orbits revolve slower

Greatest Mustache in History Nominee

greatest achievements in sci revolution astronomy mechanics medicine3
Greatest Achievements in Sci Revolution: Astronomy, Mechanics, Medicine
  • Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
    • Mathematician used telescope to observe heavens
    • The Starry Messenger(1610)
      • Planets made of similar stuff to ours! Mountains and craters on moon, moons revolving around Jupiter, phases of Venus, sunspots
      • Stunned Europeans more than Copernicus and Kepler
      • Firm believer in heliocentric system
    • Roman Inquisition ordered Galileo to condemn Copernicus
greatest achievements in sci revolution astronomy mechanics medicine4
Greatest Achievements in Sci Revolution: Astronomy, Mechanics, Medicine
  • Galileo Galilei(1564-1642)
    • Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems: Ptolemaic and Copernican
      • Written in Italian, making it more widely available, alarmed church
    • Found guilty of teaching Copernicus, put under house arrest
  • Problem of Motion- Aristotle held that an object remained at rest unless a force was applied against it and stopped when force stopped
    • What power was moving the planets?
    • Galileo discovered inertia- bodies stay in motion unless deflected by external forces
greatest achievements in sci revolution astronomy mechanics medicine5
Greatest Achievements in Sci Revolution: Astronomy, Mechanics, Medicine
  • Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
    • Invented calculus- mathematical means of calculating rates of change
    • Principia(1686)
      • Mathematical proofs for law of gravitation
      • Three laws of motion
        • Every object in motion stays in motion until deflected
        • Rate of change of motion is proportional to force against it
        • Every action has an equal and opposite reaction
      • Apply to the universe- all can be explained through math
        • Gravity creates orbits
    • Widely accepted in England, not so much elsewhere
isaac newton
Isaac Newton

Presentation

galileo vs newton
Galileo vs. Newton
  • Collins Type II
  • Track the changes of the thought in astronomy from Ptolemy & Aristotle to Isaac Newton
medicine
Medicine

Presentation

greatest achievements in sci revolution astronomy mechanics medicine6
Greatest Achievements in Sci Revolution: Astronomy, Mechanics, Medicine
  • Galen
    • Greek physician in 2nd Century CE influenced all others
  • Paracelsus(1493-1541)
    • applied chemical remedies “like cures like”
  • Andreas Vesalius(1514-1564)
    • On the Fabric of the Human Body
      • blood comes from the heart (yes) two kinds of blood (no)
  • William Harvey(1578-1657)
    • On the Motion of the Heart and Blood
      • Blood comes from heart
      • all same blood in veins and arteries
      • Blood makes complete circuit
new opportunities for elite women emerged in humanism
New opportunities for elite women emerged in Humanism
  • Margaret Cavendish (1623-1673)
    • Aristocrat taught in Humanist schooling
    • Participant in crucial scientific debates
    • Excluded from membership in Royal Society
  • Maria Merian(1647-1717)
    • Entomologist trained in her father’s workshop
    • Metamorphosis of the Insects of Surinam
  • Maria Winkelmann(1670-1720)
    • German astronomer, self and family taught
    • Excluded from Royal Society
women
Women

Presentation

opportunities for women in science limited by science
Opportunities for women in science limited… by science
  • Querelles des femmes- arguments about women
    • Women argued they were equal to men in ability
    • 18th century Anatomy “proved” women were designed to bear children and excluded further from learning and science
    • Modern science saw a male takeover of traditional roles for women like midwivery
slide19
DBQ
  • Analyze and discuss attitudes and reactions toward the participation of women in the sciences during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
  • Limit yourself to 45 minutes! (that’s a study hall)
  • T-thesis
  • A-all
  • B-bias
  • L-link
  • E-evaluate
scientific method
Scientific Method

Presentation

all answers can be found in reason
All answers can be found in reason
  • Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
    • French lower nobility, Jesuit education, studied law
    • Discourse on Method (1637)
      • I think, therefore I am
        • Emphasis on the mind: only accept things that reason proved
      • Cartesian dualism: duality between mind and matter, the mind is separate and therefore can study matter with reason
    • Rationalism: reason and experience are chief sources of knowledge
all answers can be found in reason1
All answers can be found in reason
  • Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
    • Empiricism: experiment and induction
  • Scientific Method: systematic observations and experiments used to arrive at general concepts
science and religion
Science and Religion
  • Benedict de Spinoza (1632-1677)
    • Could not accept separating the mind from matter or God from science
    • Ethics Demonstrated in the Geometrical Manner
      • God is not just the creator of the universe, he IS the universe
      • Failure to understand God leads to many misconceptions
      • Women were naturally inferior to women
  • Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)
    • Pensées
      • Tried to convert rationalists to Christianity by appealing to their reason and emotions- You can’t know everything, only God can
      • God is a reasonable bet – if he exists, you win, if he doesn’t , you have nothing to lose
spread of science
Spread of Science

Presentation

ad