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Common Nutrient Deficiency Diseases among U nder-five Children

Common Nutrient Deficiency Diseases among U nder-five Children

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Common Nutrient Deficiency Diseases among U nder-five Children

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  1. Common Nutrient Deficiency Diseases among Under-five Children By: Chimwemwe Chisenga

  2. Objectives • To equip mothers & caregivers with knowledge on common micronutrient deficiency diseases and protein energy deficiency malnutrition and how they can be prevented and controlled

  3. Micronutrient deficiency diseases among children • Two groups of malnutrition diseases • Micronutrient deficiency diseases • Protein energy malnutrition

  4. Orientation of symbols Back/ previous Home • Go Next/ Forward

  5. Orientation

  6. Directions • Read through the information and facts about the disease • Reread as many times as you can until you have understood the information • At the end of each topic, take a short quiz

  7. Select the disease you would like to learn about first Anemia Cretinism & Goitre Xerophthalmia

  8. Anemia • A micro nutrient deficiency disease • Caused by iron deficiency • Mostly affects women of child bearing age and young children

  9. Anemia • Clinical signs and symptoms • Pale conjunctive (inner eyelid), nail beds, gums, tongue, lips and skin • Tiredness • Headaches • Breathlessness

  10. Anemia Prevention • Preventive behaviors for a healthy family • Increase iron intake by:- • Eating iron rich vegetables like cowpeas, spinach, beans, pulses, pumpkin seeds and other greens. • Eat meat like beef, liver, goat or chicken • Eat iron helpers such as guavas, oranges, lemon or little meat to help your body use the iron • Avoid eating iron blockers like tea, coffee or milk an hour before and after eating an iron rich meal

  11. Anemia prevention • Prevent malaria by:- • Sleeping under a mosquito net • Get treated for malaria immediately • Take iron tablets as directed by a health worker. • Pregnant women should take one tablet of iron and folic acid everyday for six months

  12. Quiz • One of the causes of Anemia is…………? • Nutrient deficiency • Iron deficiency • Eating a lot of vegetables • Tiredness

  13. Oops! you missed it, try again! Incorrect Answer

  14. Correct Answer!Anemia is caused by a deficiency in iron intake

  15. Quiz 2. Which among the following is not a preventive behavior of Anemia for a healthy family? • Increase iron intake • Prevent Malaria • Take tea, coffee or milk each time you take an iron-rich meal • Take iron tablets as directed by the health worker

  16. Sorry!Incorrect Answer

  17. Evaluation • Correct! • You have to avoid taking tea, coffee or milk an hour before or an hour after taking an iron-rich meal

  18. Quiz! 3. Which population is the most at risk with Anemia? • The elderly • Women • Women of child bearing age & young children • Everyone

  19. Sorry,try again!

  20. Correct you got it!Women of child bearing age and younger children are at risk of Anemia

  21. Cretinism and Goitre • Both are caused by Iodine deficiency Signs and Symptoms of Goitre • Grade 0-you can’t feel it, a visibly enlarged thyroid • Grade 1- not visibly enlarged thyroid with neck in normal position • Grade 2-visibly enlarged thyroid with neck in normal position

  22. Cretinism Signs &Symptoms It manifests in two forms • Neurological Cretinism • Mental deficiency • Deaf mutism • Lack of muscular coordination

  23. Cretinism 2. Hypothyroid Cretinism • Dwarfism • Hypothyroidism • The population at risk of becoming deficient in Iodine are :- • Populations from mountainous areas where there is limited access to sea food and iodized salt • Goitre is highest in adolescence particularly in girls

  24. Prevention of Goitre and Cretinism • Purchase packaged iodized salt • Store packaged iodized salt faraway from heat and from moisture • Add salt before serving the food

  25. Quiz • What two conditions are under neurological cretinism? • Deaf mutism & Dwarfism • Dwarfism & Hypothyroidism • Deaf mutism & mental deficiency • Mental deficiency & Hypothyroidism

  26. Oops! Try again!

  27. Evaluation Correct! Deaf mutism & Mental deficiency

  28. Quiz 2. Mention two diseases that are caused by lack of iodine in the diet. • Cretinism & Hypothyroidism • Goitre & Cretinism • Goitre & Dwarfism • Goitre & Anemia

  29. Oh-oh! Try again!

  30. Evaluation You got it right! Goitre and Cretinism

  31. Xerophthalmia- Caused by Vitamin A deficiency

  32. Xerophthalmia Clinical signs and Symptoms • Night blindness • Eye dryness accompanied by foamy accumulations on the conjunctiva (inner eyelids), that often appear near the outer edge of the Iris (Bitot’s spot)

  33. Xerophthalmia Cont’d Signs & symptoms • Eye dryness, dullness or clouding (milky appearance) of the cornea (Corneal Xerosis) • Eye softening & ulceration of the cornea (Keratomalacia). This is sometimes followed by perforation of the cornea which leads to the loss of eye contents & permanent blindness

  34. Xerophthalmia Keratomalacia

  35. Xerophthalmia cont’d • Populations at risk are those who have no access to fresh fruit & vegetables • Children suffering from measles, diarrhea, respiratory infections, chickenpox & other severe infections

  36. Xerophthalmia Preventive Behaviors • Increase Vitamin A intake through consumption of yellow and orange fruits and vegetables • Mothers should take Vitamin A within 8 weeks after giving birth

  37. Xerophthalmia Prevention cont’d • Children from 6-59 months old should get Vitamin A supplementation orally every six months • Infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months and continue to breastfeed up to twenty four months

  38. Quiz • How can a family prevent Xerophthalmia? • Increase Vitamin A intake by reducing consumption of yellow & orange fruits and vegetables • Mothers should take Vitamin A supplement within 8 weeks after giving birth • Drink a lot of water • A and b

  39. Evaluation Oh no-o-o-o!

  40. Evaluation Great Job! Mothers should really take Vitamin A within 8 weeks after giving birth

  41. Quiz! 2. What causes Xerophthalmia • Vitamin B deficiency • Vitamin A deficiency • Malaria • Iodine deficiency

  42. Evaluation Oops!

  43. Evaluation • Good Job! • Yes! Xerophthalmia is caused by Vitamin A deficiency

  44. End of part one! Next module is about Protein Energy Malnutrition. Congratulations! You now know the four common Micro Nutrient Deficiency Diseases!

  45. Protein Energy Malnutrition • There are two common conditions under protein energy malnutrition. • Choose the condition you want to learn first from the two above. Kwashiorkor Marasmus

  46. Kwashiorkor

  47. Kwashiorkor • Caused by a severe deficiency of protein in diets that contain calories. • Most common in areas where there is • Famine • Limited food supply • Low levels of education( when people do not understand how to eat a proper diet) • Most common in very poor countries

  48. Signs and symptoms • Shrinking muscle mass • Diarrhea • Fatigue • Hair changes and loss • Large belly that sticks out • Swelling (Edema which hides muscle loss most of the times • Illnesses due to a weakened immune system

  49. Prevention & Treatment of Kwashiorkor • Make sure the diet contains several sources of complete proteins • Get more calories and proteins with early treatment by: • Making sure that the diet has enough carbohydrates, fats (at least 10% of total calories), & protein (12% of total calories) • Reintroduce food slowly to the patient

  50. Quiz • Mention two signs of someone with Kwashiorkor • They have a large belly that sticks out and swelling (Edema) • They breathe so fast and swell • They have shrinking muscle and are energetic • None of the above