An Introduction to Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology. A Small Dose of Developmental Tox. How Chemicals Affect Your Health. Steven G. Gilbert, PhD, DABT www.asmalldoseof.org www.toxipedia.org. Child Health. Vision for Child Health.
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A Small Dose of Developmental Tox
How Chemicals Affect Your Health
Steven G. Gilbert, PhD, DABT
“Children can develop and mature in an environment that allows them to reach and maintain their full potential.”
“Conditions that ensure that all living things have the best opportunity to reach and maintain their full genetic potential.”
What effects this process and harms a child's potential?Life – Potential & Harm
Occurrence of adverse effects on the developing organism occurring anytime during the lifetime of the organism that may result from exposure to environmental agents prior to conception (either parent), during prenatal development, or postnatally until the time of puberty.
Red - most sensitive, Gray - Less
Monster – abnormal or strange animal or plant. From Latin monstrum omen, from monere to warn (abnormal infants reflect the future).
Teratology – The study of malformations. From the Greek word for monster – teras.Terms
Humans 0.5 mg/kg/dayMouse 30 60X Rat 50 100X Dog 100 200X Hamster 350 700X
Fold Difference from Humans
Cross-Species Differences in Responseto Thalidomide
Most common preventable cause of adverse CNS development
4,000-12,000 infants per year in US
Greatly reduce intelligence
Milder form of FAS
7,000-36,000 infants per year in US
1 to 3 infants per 1,000 world wide??
Nervous systems disabilities
Washington State Mercury Chemical Action Plan
Legislature saves effort to tackle toxic flame retardants
PolyBrominated Diphenyl Ether
X & Y are number of Bromine atoms
Common Penta, Octa, and Deca
From EWG - Toxic Fire Retardants Contaminate American Homes - http://www.ewg.org/reports/inthedust/summary.php
From EWG - Toxic Fire Retardants in Breast Milk from American Mothers - http://www.ewg.org/reports/mothersmilk/es.php
Herbicides (kill plants)
Rodenticides (kill rodents)
Fungicides (kill fungus)
Fumigants (kill whatever)Classes Of Pesticides
Pesticide residues on crops, dust –hand to mouth
Airborne drift from commercial app
Contaminated drinking water
Leaching from soils to ground waterOther Exposure
(Guillette, et. al.,An Anthropological Approach to the Evaluation of Preschool Children Exposed to Pesticides in Mexico, Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 106, No. 6, June 1998)
“When an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be take even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically.”
Wingspread Conference, 1998.