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In the Name of Allah the Most Beneficent and the Most Merciful

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In the Name of Allah the Most Beneficent and the Most Merciful. Organizational Communication Zia Ur Rehman National Textile University. THE AUDIENCE: MOTIVATION. Chapter 04. What motivate you?. What Is Motivation?. Willingness of action esp. in behavior; The

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Organizational Communication

Zia Ur Rehman

National Textile University

what is motivation
What Is Motivation?

Willingness of action esp. in behavior; The

action of motivating; Something which

motivates; An incentive or reason for doing


objectives of the lecture
Objectives Of The Lecture

To comprehend:

  • How to analyze the audience?
  • Who are they?
  • What they know?
  • How they feel?
  • What can motivate the audience?
  • Punish/reward/ appeal to their growth needs
  • Character traits of audience/ need for balance
communicator listener reader
Communicator: Listener/Reader






  • Centre your audience
  • You approach
  • Do not focus yourself
  • Aim message towards audience’s needs & desires
  • Analyzing & motivate audience, most important strategy
analyze your audience
Analyze your audience?
  • Analyze who they are? & what they already know
  • Audience, who will receive the message, letter or speaking at meeting
  • Primary audience, visualize them, how to persuade
  • Secondary/hidden audience, not direct but have affect
secondary audience
Secondary Audience
  • Someone affected by or involved with message
  • E.g., receiver of memos, affected by decision at meeting, approve or signing authority
  • Need to speak /write for primary as well as secondary audience
key audience
Key Audience
  • If primary/secondary audience in conflict
  • Think about key decision maker
  • For success, must keep in mind these people
  • Consider leader’s preferred style
primary secondary key audience
Primary/secondary/key audience
  • Analyze, based on your personal knowledge
  • Know their background, ages, education level, trainings, interests and attitudes
  • Young vs. old experienced individuals
  • Know more, better to persuade
unknown audience
Unknown Audience
  • In business mostly communicate with unknown
  • Analyze their group traits instead individuals one
  • Include their group characteristics, norms, traditions, standards, rules & values
  • E.g., group of research people vs. salespersons
what they know how they feel
What They Know & How They Feel
  • Know audience’s knowledge of topic to avoid:
  • Over the head situation
  • Phrases/words/technical expertise which unfamiliar
  • E.g., medical terms, understood by medical experts
  • Provide reasonable amount of information
how audience feel
How audience feel?
  • Need to understand how audience feel
  • Their tendency, mood, opinions and attitudes
  • Are they in favor of, against, or indifferent to your message?
  • Benefit or threaten them?
  • Guess probable reaction to structure message
motivate your audience
Motivate Your Audience
  • Five techniques for motivating audience:
  • Punish or reward
  • Appeal to their growth needs
  • Use people’s need for balance
  • Perform cost/benefit analysis
  • Be sensitive to character traits
punish or reward
Punish Or Reward
  • Punishment: One way of motivating people
  • Limited method
  • Walter found six reasons for its limitations:
  • E.g., phone use, fire but can’t watch him the whole time
  • Threat may stop one treat but not give desired response
punish or reward1
Punish Or Reward
  • Stop inappropriate action even when appropriate
  • Stop talking friendly way with friends/clients
  • Produce tension, less pleasant /productive
  • Tend to make people dislike you
  • May produce counter aggression
rewards or positive reinforcement
Rewards Or Positive Reinforcement
  • Most effective way to shape behavior
  • Most important to audience
  • Some group acceptance, money, achievement
rewards or positive reinforcement1
Rewards Or Positive Reinforcement
  • Must be appropriate & sincere
  • Thanks for a project/ successful deal/ lunch
  • Effective rewards must be immediate
  • Sometimes not trophies, pens but verbal way
use people s need for balance
Use People’s Need For Balance
  • Growth needs to couple with balance theory
  • People prefer state of psychological balance
  • Ideas conflict what they believe results anxiety
  • Feel anxiety, attempt restore sense of balance
use people s need for balance1
Use People’s Need For Balance
  • people resist to accept new information, difficult to persuade
  • For good communicator, no resistance but acceptance of new ideas
  • They established new equilibrium
how to use people s need for balance
How to use people’s need for balance?
  • Focus anxiety/ problem & offer solution
  • That will feel them balance
  • Boss no meeting, anxiety among peers
  • Give solution in doing meetings
how to use people s need for balance1
How to use people’s need for balance?
  • If conflicts exit in their beliefs----imbalance
  • Tie imbalance information to their needs
  • More active participation, more understanding
  • Concentrate on key features
perform cost benefit analysis
Perform Cost/Benefit Analysis
  • Economic ideas to psychology
  • Seller/buyer cost/benefit behavior
  • Benefit will motivate buyer
  • Think about merits/demerits of item
be sensitive to character traits
Be Sensitive To Character Traits
  • Making generalizations about others is dangerous
  • Infer through traits behavior, we perceive
  • Categories, based on incorrect inference
  • Equate character with traits, not people
  • Characters are complex than a trait even
4c s model
4c’s Model

through procedures tends to to get results work alone

comptroller commander

maintains changes

status quo status quo

collaborator crusader

through through

affiliation dreams

work with group

audience 1
Audience 1
  • Bureaucratic , work alone & carefully
  • Consistence & like facts and statistics
  • Not mover and shaker
  • Slow decision and resist to change
  • To motivate , use traditional ,process & system
  • Use detail information & tone
audience 2
Audience 2
  • Enthusiastic, idealistic, creative, like change
  • Sometimes prejudice coz enthusiastic
  • Motivate, informative tone
  • Motivate by ideas
audience 3
Audience 3
  • People’s person, work as part of team
  • Avoid conflict & risk, don’t like change, avoid details
  • Don’t make decision
  • Motive, adopt trusting tone
audience 4
Audience 4
  • Likes action & results not ideals
  • Decisive & efficient
  • Use result –oriented tone
  • Give your own recommendations & conclusion
  • What’s in it for him? Wants power
4c s examples
4c’s Examples
  • Commander, army officers, editors
  • Crusader, art/history teacher
  • Collaborator, cricket coach
  • Comptroller, HR department, secretary

What sorts of question can be constructed

after studying this chapter?

probable questions
Probable Questions
  • What is audience and how can we motivate our audience?
  • Explain Maslow's and Herzberg’s two sets of needs to motivate people.
  • Draw and elaborate 4C’s model of business personality traits.