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ELICITATION OF RESISTANCE BY RAW COW MILK AND TRICHODERMA VIRIDE IN CHILLI AGAINST LEAF CURL DISEASE Arun Kumar and P. C. Mali Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur-342003, India Email: arpurster@gmail.com. CHILLI-THE CROP.

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slide1

ELICITATION OF RESISTANCE BY RAW COW MILK AND TRICHODERMA VIRIDE IN CHILLI AGAINST LEAF CURL DISEASE

Arun Kumar and P. C. Mali

Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur-342003, IndiaEmail: arpurster@gmail.com

slide2

CHILLI-THE CROP

  • Chilli or hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an effective medicine for various types of pains in humans
  • Herpes zoster-related pain, diabetic neuropathy, post- mastectomy pain, headaches, osteoarthritis, and the post-surgical pains in case of cancers
  • The crop is widely cultivated as vegetable and spice crop in the

irrigated belt of arid and semi-arid areas

slide3

BACKDROP

  • Rajasthan is the 6th largest producer in India
  • Jodhpur region produces 42.7% red chilli on 20,000 ha of land
  • Jodhpur district alone contributes 20% of total production of red chilli in the State
  • Continued..
slide4

Popular chilli cvs. Mathania Red, Mehsana,Haripur-Raipur and Mandoria

  • Large and fleshy fruits, mild pungency and brilliant red colour with rich spicy flavour
  • Susceptible to fungal and viral diseases along with nematode
diseases of chilli
Leaf curl disease (Begomovirus ChiLCuV,after Senanayake et al. 2007. Plant Pathology 56, 343).

Die-back (Colletotrichum capsici(Syd.) Butler & Bisby)

Root Knot nematodes (Medoidogyne incognita)

DISEASES OF CHILLI
slide6

SYMPTOMS

Leaf Curl Disease of chilli

  • Curling of upper leaves with shortened internodes
  • Severely infected plants produce clusters of reduced sized leaves with fewer flowers and fruits
  • Small sized fruits are produced with deformed seeds

Small sized fruits

Clusters of reduced size leaves

slide8

EXISTING MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

  • Farmers extensively use a number of insecticides to protect the crop from LCD
  • Use of pesticides has failed to minimize the losses
  • Causes environmental pollution, resistance in insect vectors and health hazards
slide9

BIO-CONTROL AGENTS

  • Bio-control agents have emerged as a new method of managing plant diseases
  • Different botanicals (Plant spp.), animal products and other materials such as ash, cow urine and dung, fish meal and milk etc.
  • Rhizobacteria (PGPR), leaf proteins, proline and Trichoderma spp. reduce diseases in many plant species manipulating host plant's physical and biochemical properties
use of milk in plant disease management
USE OF MILK IN PLANT DISEASE MANAGEMENT
  • Indigenous ancient tool against plant diseases
  • Amino acids viz. proline, isoleucein and phenyl alanine in milk induce resistance against plant diseases
  • Phenolic anti-microbials are also present
  • Potassium phosphate content strengthens host immune system against diseases
slide12

AMINO ACIDS AND PLANT DISEASE PROTECTION

  • Certain amino acids demonstrated to act as inducers of plant resistance against biotic or abiotic stresses in many host-pathogen systems
  • Besides inducing resistance these amino acids also enhance growth of plants and act as osmo-protectants
slide13

TREATMENT(T 1)

Treated chilli seeds with RCM (1:1) for 24 hrs

Dried in shade

Treated these seeds with Trichoderma viride ( @ 6g-kg seed)

Nursery soil treated with T. viride (@ 10g2) after mixing with FYM

Seed sowing in nursery

45 DAS roots of plant saplings were dipped in RCM (15% or 1:6) for 20 min. before transplanting

20 DAS

RCM (15%) sprayed on the transplanted plants

FARMER’S PRACTICE

(Control)

Most of these practices are chemical sprays with or without chemical seed treatment

slide15

Trichoderma in nursery soil grows with developing root system of the treated plant and protects the roots from infection

slide16

On-farm Management of LCD

(Pooled data of 2000-’04)

*T-1: Seed treatment with RCM (1:1) for 24 hrs and T. viride (0.6%). Root dip for 10 min. in RCM (15%). Application of T. viride (10 g-m2) with FYM, and RCM (15%) spray 20 days after transplantation in field.

FP: Variety of practices that vary from farmer to farmer. Most of these are non-organic, without any seed treatment.

slide17

Treatment*

Plant height (cm)

Root length

(cm)

No. of fruits plant-1

(g)

Fruit size

(cm)

Fruit wt. plant-1

(g)

Yield

plot-1

Kg-1

Length

Width

T 1

66.3

20.2

66.4

10.4

4.5

306.2

3.32#

T 2

57.5

13.9

40.1

9.2

3.9

219.4

2.72

Average Yield Parameters of Chilli

*T1. Seed treatment with RCM (50% dilution with water for 24 h)

and Trichoderma viride (0.6%) with soil treatment with T. viride (10g m-2 ) mixed with FYM

T2. Farmer’s Practice # more than 0.5 kg ha-1 increase

slide18

T

C

slide19

ON-FARM LCD MANAGEMENT IN CHILLI

Farmer’s Practice

Treatment

slide20

Elicitation of Defense Related Enzymes by Amino Acids

Scavenging enzymes –peroxidases (POX) and phenolic generators - phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) are induced in response to both biotic and abiotic stresses (Schneider and Ullrich, 1994; van Loon, 1997)

slide22

INDUCED RESISTANCE

  • New strategy for managing plant diseases
  • Elicitors are characteristically non-specific
  • Induced general resistance is effective against a range of pathogens
  • Previously susceptible plant becomes resistant after application of an inducer
slide23

Contd…

  • Elicitors enhance resistance response to extrinsic stimulus without altering the genome
  • Only metabolic changes in plants help in defending against infections
  • Environment friendly
slide24

SYNTHESIS

  • Induced biochemical and molecular mechanisms of defense responses are generally correlated with enzymatic responses in plants
  • Peroxidase (POX) is a useful marker of plant development, physiology, infection and stress
  • POX contributes to resistance by oxidation of phenolic compounds in chilli
  • POX is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin that limits the extent of pathogen spread
  • PAL is critical precursor of a cascade of defense reactions leading to ISR
slide26

LCD of Hot Pepper

BCAs and Induced Resistance

Results

Conclusion

  • RCM (1:1 & 1:6) protected chilli from LCD
  • Metabolites increased in treated plants
  • Defense related enzymes showed increased activity
  • RCM &T.v treated seeds and T.vappliednursery soil with RCM sprays of 15%dilutioncapable of stimulating IR in chilli
  • Susceptible plant turns resistant by inducer application
  • Milk and T. viride have primed defense responses

RCM and T. viride induced resistance against Chilli LCD

ChiLCuVinduced diseaseposing hazards in increasing the production

slide27

Towards Green Pesticides

SUSTAINABLE

PRODUCTION

THE PLEDGE

SOCIAL

RESPONSIBILITY

ENVIRONMENTAL

PROTECTION