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In cosa sono competente/esperto? Come ho raggiunto la competenza? Dopo quanto tempo? Quali sono le skills (abilità) necessarie in questo campo? In che modo posso giudicare il livello di competenza di un’altra persona?. Domain Skills.

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In cosa sono competente/esperto?

Come ho raggiunto la competenza?

Dopo quanto tempo?

Quali sono le skills (abilità) necessarie in questo campo?

In che modo posso giudicare il livello di competenza di un’altra persona?


Domain Skills

Senso-motoric skills are externally visible. They can be easily acquired by visualising the processes and learn through observations.

Cognitive skills run inside human mind. Their non-visible nature demands a more sophisticated learning process.


What is the best suitable theoretical framework for facilitation of cognitive skills?


Cognitive apprenticeship framework facilitation of cognitive skills?

  • Modelling: Learners study the task pattern of experts to develop own cognitive model

  • Coaching: Learners solve tasks by consulting a tutorial component of the environment

  • Fading: Tutorial activity is gradually reduced in line with learners’ improving performance and problem solving competence


Phases of Cognitive apprenticeship facilitation of cognitive skills?

World knowledge (initial requirement)

Observation of interactions among masters and peers

Assisting in completion of tasks done by master

Trying out on own by imitating


Phases of Cognitive apprenticeship facilitation of cognitive skills?

Getting feedback from master

Getting advise for new things on the basis of results of imitation, comparing given solution with alternatives

Reflection by student, resulting from master’s advice


Phases of Cognitive apprenticeship facilitation of cognitive skills?

  • Repetition of process from 2 to 7

    • Fading out guidance and feedback

    • Active participation, exploration and innovation come in

  • Assessment of generalisation of the tasks and concepts learnt during repetition process


Constituents of Domain Competence facilitation of cognitive skills?

Reflection oriented and abstract

Action oriented and experiential

Easier to

learn from mistakes

Difficult to

learn from mistakes

Know-why

Know-how

Trial and error

logical processes

Know-why-not

Know-how-not

Know-when

An example of the know-how aspect of know-when is the temporal context required for an appropriate sequence of operation

An example of the know-why aspect of know-when is the environmental and behavioural contexts required for making a decision

Know-when-not

Context oriented and both experiential and abstract

Know-what

Know-about

Awareness oriented


Constituents of Domain Competence facilitation of cognitive skills?

Know-how

Ä It has an operational orientation.

Ä It is mainly action-driven and hence pre-dominantly experiential.

Ä It is difficult to inherit it from someone else’s experience.

Know-how-not

Ä Learning by mistakes.

Examples : Computer simulation and virtual reality


Constituents of Domain Competence facilitation of cognitive skills?

Know-why

Ä It has a causal orientation.

Ä It is mainly reflection-driven and therefore based on abstraction.

Ä It can be inherited from someone else’s line of reasoning.

Know-why-not

Ä Logical processes.

Ä Needs deeper reflection.


Constituents of Domain Competence facilitation of cognitive skills?

Know-when (and -where)

Ä It has a contextual orientation.

Ä It provides the temporal and spatial context for both the know-how and know-why. It is thus both action and/or reflection driven.


Constituents of Domain Competence facilitation of cognitive skills?

Know-about

Ä It has an awareness orientation.

Ä It includes above three types of knowledge in terms of know-what.

Ä It also contains information about the environmental context of this knowledge.


How about computers? facilitation of cognitive skills?

Reflect upon:

Which constituent of knowledge can be successfully facilitated through computers?

Know-how Know-why

Know-when Know-about


Affective Knowledge Taxonomy facilitation of cognitive skills?

(Krathwohl et al,. 1964)


Affective Knowledge Taxonomy facilitation of cognitive skills?

(Krathwohl et al,. 1964)

  • Receiving is being aware of or sensitive to the existence of certain ideas, material, or phenomena and being willing to tolerate them.

  • Responding is committed in some small measure to the ideas, materials, or phenomena involved by actively responding to them


Affective Knowledge Taxonomy facilitation of cognitive skills?

(Krathwohl et al,. 1964)

  • Valuing is willing to be perceived by others as valuing certain ideas, materials, or phenomena

  • Organization is to relate the value to those already held and bring it into a harmonious and internally consistent philosophy

  • Characterization by value or value set is to act consistently in accordance with the values he or she has internalized


Psychomotor Knowledge Taxonomy facilitation of cognitive skills?

(Harrow,1972)


Psychomotor Knowledge Taxonomy facilitation of cognitive skills?

(Harrow,1972)

  • Reflex movements are actions elicited without learning in response to some stimuli

  • Basic fundamental movement is inherent movement patterns formed by combining reflex movements and is the basis for complex skilled movements

  • Perceptual is interpretation of various stimuli that enable one to make adjustments to the environment (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, or tactile discrimination).


Psychomotor Knowledge Taxonomy facilitation of cognitive skills?

(Harrow,1972)

  • Physical activities require endurance, strength, vigor, and agility, which produce a sound, efficiently functioning body

  • Skilled movements are the result of acquisition of a degree of efficiency when performing a complex task

  • Non-discursive is communication through bodily movements ranging from facial expressions through to sophisticated choreographies


Bloom’s Cognitive Knowledge Taxonomy facilitation of cognitive skills?


Bloom’s Cognitive Knowledge Taxonomy facilitation of cognitive skills?


Bloom’s Cognitive Knowledge Taxonomy facilitation of cognitive skills?


Bloom’s Cognitive Knowledge Taxonomy facilitation of cognitive skills?


The Prototype facilitation of cognitive skills?


User Interface Design facilitation of cognitive skills?


Main Task Capturing Page facilitation of cognitive skills?


Sub Task Capturing Page facilitation of cognitive skills?


Decomposed Task List facilitation of cognitive skills?


Concept Map View facilitation of cognitive skills?



  • Task facilitation of cognitive skills?

  • Preparare una cena al lume di candela

  • Organizzare una festa di compleanno a sorpresa

  • Cercare lavoro

  • Organizzare una vacanza


  • Esercitazione facilitation of cognitive skills?

  • Riprendere l’esercizio realizzato rispetto ai task precedenti e completarlo:

    • realizzando la mappa mentale del compito scelto aggiungendo le connessioni tra i concetti

    • associando ad ogni livello individuato uno dei livelli della tassonomia cognitiva di Bloom


Esempio facilitation of cognitive skills?

Fare la lavatrice

Si deve

separare per tipologia gli

dosare

scegliere

Selezionare programma

Indumenti

Detersivo

understanding

analysis

ruotare la

manopola

premere

pulsante

knowledge


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