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An Introduction to Decision Support Systems

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  1. An Introduction to Decision Support Systems MIS 533

  2. Information Requirements by Management Level Strategic Management Tactical Management Information Decisions Operational Management

  3. Structured vs. Semi-Structured • For each decision you make, the decision will fall into one of the following categories: • Structured Decisions • Unstructured • Semi-Structured

  4. Structured Decisions • Often called “programmed decisions” because they are routine and there are usually specific policies, procedures, or actions that can be identified to help make the decision • “This is how we usually solve this type of problem”

  5. Unstructured Decisions • Decision scenarios that often involve new or unique problems and the individual has little or no programmatic or routine procedure for addressing the problem or making a decision

  6. Semi-structured Decisions • Decision scenarios that have some structured components and some unstructured components.

  7. The Role of the Decision Maker • Decision makers can be • Individuals • Teams • Groups • Organizations • All of these types of decision makers will differ in their knowledge and experience; therefore, there will be differences in how they will react to a given problem scenario

  8. The Decision Making Process • Regardless of the type of decision maker, all decisions involve the following steps • Intelligence • Design • Choice • Decision • Implementation

  9. Strategies for Making Decisions • Optimization • Satisficing • Elimination by Aspects • Incrementalism • Mixed Scanning • Analytic Hierarchy Process

  10. Types of Models • Deterministic: linear programming and production planning • Stochastic: queuing theory and regression analysis • Simulation: transportation analysis and production modeling • Domain-specific: meteorological models, geologic models, economic models

  11. Conceptual Models • Formal approaches are not always feasible • Most all problem is always completely new • Decision makers can therefore recall and combine a variety of past experiences to create a model of the current situation • The Garbage can approach to decision making

  12. How can IT be used to support decision makers? • By supporting various individual and team activities and roles: • Communication and team interaction • The assimilation and filtering of data • Assist with problem recognition • Assist with problem solving • Putting together the results into a cohesive package

  13. Data is turned into information, but the decision maker also needs Knowledge to make decisions • Types of knowledge: • Descriptive Knowledge • Procedural Knowledge • Reasoning Knowledge

  14. Knowledge Management Tools • Text and Forms management • Database and Reporting management • Spreadsheet, Solvers and Charts management • Programming management. • Rules management

  15. The IS Toolbox • Types of organizational systems • Transaction Processing Systems • Management Support Systems • Decision Support Systems • Executive Information Systems

  16. External and Internal Data Data Management Model Management Attribute Data Aspatial Models Attribute Data Object Knowledge Data Management Dialog Management Attribute-Based Queries and Reports Other Decision Information Maker Systems A model of a DSS

  17. A model of a Spatial DSS

  18. So, how does a DSS benefit decision makers • Supplements the decision maker • Allows improved intelligence, decision, and choice activities • Facilitates problem solving • Provides assistance with non-structures decisions • Assists with knowledge management

  19. Specific DSS Technologies • Expert Systems • Executive Information Systems • Management Support Systems • Communication Support Systems • Group DSS • Personal Support System