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Word Processing. Referencing. Questions. If the ASCII for A is 65, what is the ASCII for F ? What search string (including Wild Cards) would I use to find the words Good, God and Gold, but not Gone or G.Ford ? What is the shortcut key for Thesaurus ?

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Word processing

Word Processing



  • If the ASCII for A is 65, what is the ASCII for F?

  • What search string (including Wild Cards) would I use to find the words Good, God and Gold, but not Gone or G.Ford?

  • What is the shortcut key for Thesaurus?

  • How would you go about changing the time between autosaving a document from 10 minutes to 2 minutes?

Answer: 70

Answer: Go*d

Answer: Shift + F7

Answer: Office Menu -> Word Options -> Saving Tab -> Autosave Options

Referencing an introduction
Referencing: An Introduction

  • Referencing is a mechanism for:

    • Giving credibility to ideas or concepts

    • Giving credit to the people responsible for them

  • At undergraduate level, departments often require all ideas to be referenced, in the form of Citations.

    • This generally means you are not allowed to have an original idea until post-graduate study, and you run the risk of losing marks if you do not comply.

  • You should never include a source in your Bibliography or Table of References if you have not cited it within your document.

On citations
On Citations

  • Citation:

    • An “in-text” reference to an external concept, idea, argument, graphic, chart, data set or anything else which was not the product of the author themselves.

  • A citation should be placed directly after the use of an idea from an external source:

    • E.g. Statistical evidence shows that everyone hates referencing (Huggybear, 2007), so we shouldn’t do it.

  • Where this is not possible (for instance, when presenting a long argument), citations can be placed:

    • Before an external concept is presented.

      • E.g. According to Happyface (2008), blah blahblah.

    • After an external concept is presented.

      • E.g. ... Blah blahblah (Sadface, 2009).

Direct quotes
Direct Quotes

  • While it is considered acceptable to quote certain sources verbatim once in a while, this should generally be avoided as much as possible, as many consider them to be “lazy”.

    • Quoting phrases is often not only acceptable, but in some cases required.

    • Quoting a sentence is only acceptable if done sparingly, and for good reason.

    • Quoting a paragraph or more should be avoided unless absolutely necessary. As a rule of thumb, don't do it.

  • It is SIGNIFICANTLY BETTER to paraphrase a source so that it fits the flow of your own argument, and then reference it appropriately.

  • There are exceptions to these rules.

    • For instance, if your topic of study is the text itself (such as in English Literature), direct quotes are more acceptable.

    • Again, however, this is for good reason.

  • If in doubt, read your departmental guidelines.

Citation styles
Citation Styles

  • To make things even more complicated, different departments require different referencing and citation styles.

    • E.g. Harvard Style, APA Style, ACM Style, IEEE Transactions Style etc.

  • Citation styles generally fall into one of 3 primary categories:

    • Numeric: [x] where x is the number of the cited text in the reference list.

      • E.g. [4], [12], [65] etc.

    • Year: (xxxx{y}) where xxxx is the year of publication of the material, and y is an optional letter (a, b, c etc.) used when multiple publications from the same year are present.

      • E.g. (2008a), (2008b), (1984) etc.

    • Author, Year: Similar to Year, but with the author referenced as well.

      • E.g. (Someone, 2008) etc.

  • Citations may also contain:

    • Title

    • Page numbers

Referencing tab
Referencing Tab

Most referencing options can be found in the References Tab in the Ribbon.

Adding sources
Adding Sources

A good place to start is by adding the source you already have to the Source Manager.

This is however not a necessary first step, as you can add placeholder citations to your document, and defer source entry until later.

Master list versus current list
Master List versus Current List

  • Master List

    • Persistent (i.e. Remains available in ALL word documents).

    • Cannot contain placeholders.

  • Current List

    • Applicable to current document only.

    • Contains a subset of the Master List, as well as placeholders.

Adding citations
Adding Citations

Inserting a citation is relatively easy.

You can add existing sources and existing placeholders directly into your document

(they are inserted where your cursor is)

You can add a new source, or insert a new placeholder.

  • Why placeholders?

  • Placeholders allow you to add a citation to your document without adding the source to the source manager first.

  • Placeholders may be referenced as if they are complete sources (i.e. used more than once), and may be converted into a proper source from the Source Manager window.

  • Once properly filled out, the citation specifics will replace the placeholder in the document.

Inserting a bibliography
Inserting a Bibliography

Insert a headerless bibliography

Bibliographies contain all the items in your CurrentList of sources (not the master list).

It is up to you to ensure all entries are cited (you can check in the Sources Manager)

Like citations, Bibliographies are inserted where the cursor is located.

You can delete a bibliography by selecting it, and pressing Shift + Delete.

Altering referencing style
Altering Referencing Style

  • Due to the diversity of referencing styles, you will often have to use a non-standard referencing style.

  • To change the overall style of the document, select a base style from the Style selection box. You should be able to see the changes immediately.

  • In the case of citations, you can add page number, and show/hide details about the citation, by:

    • Selecting the citation

    • Either right – clicking or opening the citations drop-down box

    • Selecting Edit Citation


  • Replace all your placeholders with actual references.

  • Remove all unused sources from the current sources list in the Source Manager.

Cross referencing

  • Cross-referencing allows you to:

    • refer to other parts of the document for the purposes of explanation

    • Refer to tables and figures from within text to indicate that they are relevant to the argument/sentence.

  • In order to cross-reference some things (places in the document, a particular figure), you first need to instruct word on what these things are called.

Cross referencing continued
Cross-referencing (continued)

  • There are 8 distinct cross-reference types available:

    • Heading – allows you to reference any text with one of the Heading Styles applied.

    • Bookmark – Allows you to reference any bookmarks inserted in the document.

    • NumberedItem – Allows you to cross-reference any item in a numbered list.

    • Footnote – Allows you to cross-reference any footnote in the document.

    • Endnote – Allows you to cross-reference any endnote in the document.

    • Equation1 – Allows you to cross-reference any equation caption in the document.

    • Figure1 – Allows you to cross-reference any figure caption in the document.

    • Table1 – Allows you to cross-reference any table caption in the document.

  • [1] - You need to add a caption to the equation first.

Adding bookmarks and captions
Adding Bookmarks and Captions

You can add a bookmark from the Links group in the Insert Tab.

You must then give the bookmark a name so you can reference it.

You can add captions to figures, tables and equations using the Insert Caption control.

Note that captions do not have to be associated with anything, but they do require a type label.

Note that you can access cross-referencing from both the Insert Tab and the References Tab.

Adding a cross reference
Adding a Cross-Reference

After Clicking on one of the cross-reference buttons, this window is displayed.

  • Select the reference type.

    • Figure, Table, Heading etc.

  • Select what to reference.

    • entire caption, number, page number etc.

  • Select the item you want to cross-reference from the list.

If you insert as a hyperlink, you can Ctrl + Click the cross-reference to go to the item it references.

Adding a table of figures
Adding a Table of Figures

A table of figures provides the page numbers of either the tables, figures or equations in your document, and optionally their label (caption text) as well.

  • Click Insert Table of Figures

  • Select from one of the format options.

  • Select what type of table (figures, table or equation)

  • Set any other options

  • Click OK

Adding a table of contents
Adding a Table of Contents

  • To use an automatic table of contents, first tag the headings you want to include with the Style Tags in the home Ribbon (Heading 1,2, or 3)

  • Then click Table of Contents to select the type of table you want to insert.

  • You can also enter a Manual Table, and fill in the entries yourself.

  • If the structure of your document changes, you can push the Update Table button to refresh the tables contents.

  • You can remove a table of contents either by pressing Shift + Delete after selecting it, or clicking Remove Table of Contents from this menu.

Footnotes and endnotes
Footnotes and Endnotes

  • To insert a footnote for the word your cursor is in, click Insert Footnote.

  • Click Insert Endnote to create an endnote for the word containing your cursor.

  • You can cycle through footnotes by clicking Next Footnote.

  • To remove footnotes and endnotes, select them and press Delete.

Generating an index
Generating an Index

Click here to insert an index at the cursor position in the document.

To add an item (word or words) to the document Index, select it/them and click Mark Entry.

You can specify where to include the index of the word/s in your index table, and optionally a subentry.

Choose Cross-reference to refer to other items in the Index.

Choose Current Page to reference the page number.

Choose Page Range to reference the pages from the current page to a particular bookmark.

Click Mark to mark the single occurrence of the word/s, or click Mark All to mark each page that the word/s occur on.

Note – Mark All is only available when indexing the current page.