the united states of america and its origins 33 000 b c 1909 a d n.
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The United States of America and Its Origins 33,000 B.C. – 1909 A.D. Chapter 1, New World Beginnings. There was the theory of Pangaea, that everything was one big continent then broke away to what we have now.

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The United States of America and Its Origins 33,000 B.C. – 1909 A.D.

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chapter 1 new world beginnings
Chapter 1, New World Beginnings
  • There was the theory of Pangaea, that everything was one big continent then broke away to what we have now.
  • There was a land bridge between what is now Russia & Alaska, thus having the Americas accessible to natives from Asia to settle in the western hemisphere.
  • The first Europeans to reach the Americas was the Norse around 1000AD when they reached present-day Newfoundland.
  • Marco Polo traveled to China to trade
  • In 1492, Christopher Columbus sailed to find India with permission from Isabella & Ferdinand but instead landed in the East Indies.
  • The Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 determined what lands Spain & Portugal got.
chapter 2 the planting of english america
Chapter 2, The Planting of English America
  • The English failed at an attempt to colonize when they lost Roanoke colony, also known as “The Lost Colony”
  • Britain defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588
  • In the early 1600s, Spain had only claimed Santa Fe, France with Quebec, & Britain with Jamestown.
  • In 1608, Captain John Smith took charge in the colony
  • Twice, the colonists clashed with the Indians & went to war with them, in 1614 & 1644-1646
  • Virginia’s “gold” was tobacco.
  • Maryland was a Catholic haven, with the poorer class being Protestants
  • Sugar plantations were planted in the West Indies, but blacks were brought over to work because most natives died from disease
  • The Iroquois Confederation was once a great alliance of the Mohawks, Senecas, Oneidas, Onondagas, & Cayugas.
chapter 3 settling the northern colonies
Chapter 3, Settling the Northern Colonies
  • The Protestant Reformation produced Puritanism & other Christian denominations
  • Calvinism was all about predestination—which was that God had already decided who was going to heaven & hell.
  • In 1620, the Pilgrims landed on Plymouth on the Mayflower
  • Massachusetts was established as a Bay Colony, but there was tension between different religious groups.
  • Roger Williams claimed that the government shouldn’t control/maintain religious behavior
  • The Puritans ran into the Indians with violence sometimes with the Pequot War & the beheading of Metacom.
  • William Penn had Pennsylvania named after him, and was a faithful follower of the Quaker faith.
  • The middle colonies were New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, & Delaware. They were halfway between the North & Southern colonies & were thriving.
chapter 4 american life in the 17 th century
Chapter 4, American Life in the 17th Century
  • Chesapeake was very unhealthy at first & so many people died early.
  • By the 1700s, the Chesapeake Bay was producing about 40 million pounds of tobacco a year, with indentured servants working the land.
  • After 1700, half of Virginia’s population was black.
  • Before some of the earlier slaves gained freedom & some owned slaves themselves.
  • Slaves had to work rice fields but contributed to the culture.
  • The largest social group in the South were the farmers.
  • Puritans in New England usually lived longer & were more family-oriented.
  • In the early 1690s, there were the Salem Witch Trials due to young girls claiming to be bewitched by older women
chapter 5 colonial society on the eve of revolution
Chapter 5, Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution
  • There was great diversity, with groups like the Germans, Swiss, Dutch & Scots-Irish making up a portion of the population.
  • People actually had a chance to prosper in America, as long as they worked hard for it.
  • Being in the clergy was one of the most honorable jobs at the time.
  • Agriculture was such a huge industry in colonial times.
  • The two tax supported churches in 1775 was Anglican & Congregational
  • The First Great Awakening was a time of religious revival in the colonies
  • Education was highly valued in New England
  • There were eight royal governors of the colonies in 1775; some were good but others were corrupt.
chapter 6 the duel for north america
Chapter 6, The Duel for North America
  • France was late in coming for the colonies.
  • France settles in what is now Canada.
  • Robert De La Salle founded Louisiana in 1682 to keep the Spanish from expanding
  • The empires collided with wars, with George Washington eventually starting a battle with France, igniting the French-Indian War
  • It ended with the Peace Treaty in Paris in 1763, ultimately kicking out France from North America
  • The Proclamation of 1763 prohibited settlements past the Appalachian Mountains
chapter 7
Chapter 7
  • Colonists started to pay taxes when the legal tea was cheaper than the smuggles tea.
  • Georgia was the only colony planted by the British government.
  • Colonists were protected by the redcoats for free.

Republicanism was when citizens willingly subordinated their private interests for the common good.

European goods meant for America had to be checked by Britain first.

Sugar Act & Stamp Act gave people a trial without a jury,

The Boston Port Act – harbors were closed until damages were paid.

A statue of King George III was made, but was later defaced.

London government expected Americans to make products needed for themselves to save Britain time & money.

Colonists bought more from Britain then they sold, so they ran out of gold and silver and started using household items.

America bought ¼ of British exports and ½ of their shipping was devoted to American trade.

Since tea was smuggled at a cheap prices, colonists didn’t take taxes seriously.

chapter 8
Chapter 8
  • In 1778 England and France weren’t on good terms.
  • The war was not being fought in Europe, North America, South America, the Caribbean and Asia.
  • Americans secretly had help from France.

Before the Declaration of Independence, persecution of Loyalists was relatively mild.

“Model Treaty” was used to guide the American Commissioners it was about to dispatch the French court.

Settlers practiced a kind of Republicanism in their Democratic town meetings and annual elections.

Thomas Paine wrote “Common Sense.”

When Benjamin Franklin arrived in Paris he was determined that his appearance should hold a diplomatic revolution.

In 1780, Catherine the Great of Russia took the lead in organizing the Armed Neutrality.

Franklin, instead of wearing the customary ceremonial sword, he carried only a plain white walking stick.

Americans were still depending on Britain but disliked it greatly.

British soldiers did not reckon with General Benedict Arnold.

chapter 9
Chapter 9
  • The American Revolution was an accelerated evolution.
  • Men and women demanded to be called “Mr.” or “Mrs.” a name usually meant for the wealthy.
  • Women were given more privileges in education.

The fight for separation of church and state was fierce.

The 13 Original Colonies were similar in governmental structure and constitutions.

The Second Continental Congress discussed mostly military control and foreign affairs.

Delegates wanted to save idealism and make it to imperialism.

A Philadelphia newspaper encouraged people to make their own choices.

Paper money was invented.

Loyalist had their land confiscated and turned into smaller farms.

Goods from Britain were cut off and the Yankees had to make their own.

State governments borrowed more money than they could repay during the war.

Some states refused to pay anything while complaining about the tyranny of “kind congress.

States were taxing each other for food and trash.

chapter 10
Chapter 10
  • The French were infuriated with John Jay’s treaty.
  • French warships began to seize defenseless American merchant vessels.

The Constitution was ratified in 1789.

The Proclamation proclaimed the government’s neutrality but advised American citizens to be impartial to both sides.

Treaty of Greenville gave up territory to the old Northwest.

The Sedition Act was a direct slap to the Constitution and Bill of Rights.

General Washington was drafted as president by the Electoral College.

Many Jeffersonian Democratic – Republicans favored honoring the alliance.

Hamilton and Washington wanted to avoid the war as much as possible.

Hamilton’s financial policies lost him the popular vote.

In 1793 the economy was unstable.

America’s population was still 90% rural.

All but 5% of America’s population lived in the Appalachian mountains.

Many anti-federalists criticized the Constitution.

In 1793 the nation was politically feeble.

chapter 11
  • The Federalist party died out.
  • Hamilton privately attacked Jefferson in a pamphlet which the Jeffersonian got a published.

The Federalists used heavy handicaps like their Alien and Sedition Acts.

Jefferson was inaugurated on March 3, 1801.

Excise tax was repealed.

Adams refused to fight with France.

Military was reduced to a police force.

Alliances were won through “peaceful coercion.”

Jefferson believed in God, but rumors of his alleged Atheism angered preachers throughout New England.

War preparations swelled the public debts which led to new taxes, including the stamp act.

The military was too much so they minimized it to lower taxes.

On April 30, 1803, the Louisiana purchase was made.

The Embargo Act, U.S. was forbidden to export goods.

The Federalist party died out.

chapter 12
Chapter 12
  • The Missouri Compromise lasted 34 years and preserved the compact between states.

The Treaty of Ghent was an armistice.

Both sides agreed to stop fighting and to restore conquered territory.

The Federalist ran a candidate for the last time in 1816.

John Marshall invoked the Hamiltonian doctrine of implied powers.

Monroe negotiated the Treaty of 1818 with Britain.

Francis Scott King wrote “The Star Spangled Banner.”

School textbooks were now being written by Americans, for Americans.

American painters started to celebrate their native landscapes.

The War of 1812 bred greater American Independence.

A revived Bank of the United States was voted by the congress in 1816.

Catastrophe of 1819 caused the population to drop.

The army was ill trained, ill disciplined and scattered.

British forces were weakest in Canada.

chapter 13 the rise of mass democracy 1824 1840
Chapter 13 – The Rise of Mass Democracy [1824 – 1840]
  • In the election of 1824, there were four candidates: Andrew Jacksonof Tennessee, Henry Clay of Kentucky, William H. Crawford of Georgia, and John Q. Adams of Massachusetts. As a result, John Q. Adams won the vote.
  • In 1828, Andrew Jackson became president. He was an anti-federalist and he was also known as “Old Hickory.”
  • The spoils system rewarded supporters with good positions in office, but it denied many able people a chance to contribute.
chapter 13 continued
Chapter 13 (continued)
  • The Tariff of 1828, drove up duties as high as 45% while imposing heavy tariffs on raw materials like wool. John C. Calhoun secretly wrote “The South Carolina Exposition” in 1828, boldly denouncing the recent tariff and calling for nullification of the tariff by all states.
  • Jackson proposed that Indians of the Cherokee, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and the Seminoles, or the “Five Civilized Tribes,” should be transferred west of the Mississippi, and in 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, in which Indians were moved to Oklahoma. Thousands of Indians died on the “Trail of Tears” after being uprooted from their sacred lands that had been theirs for centuries.
  • The Bank of the United States (BUS) was led by Nicholas Biddle and it was financially sound, reduced bank failures, issued sound notes, promoted economic expansion by making abundant credit, and was a safe depository for the funds of the Washington government.
  • After armed conflict and slaughters at the Alamo and at Goliad, Texan war cries rallied citizens, volunteers, and soldiers, and the turning point came after Sam Houston led his army for 37 days eastward, then turned on the Mexicans, taking advantage of their siesta hour, wiping them out, and capturing Santa Anna. This was all part of the Lone Star Rebellion.
chapter 14 forging the national economy 1790 1860
Chapter 14 – Forging the National Economy [1790 – 1860]
  • Frontier people quickly moved West which proved to be very hard because of diseases and loneliness.
  • By 1860, the original 13 states now had become 33 states and the American population was 4th largest in the world.
  • In 1790, only New York and Philadelphia had more than 20,000 people, but by 1860, 43 cities had overpopulated. With population growth came poor sanitation for later and sewage systems were terrible disease causes.
chapter 14 continued
Chapter 14 (continued)
  • Newly invented machinery quickened the cultivation of crops and the manufacturing of goods, while workers found themselves laboring under new and more demanding expectations for their pace of work.
  • The Irish and the Germans migrated to America because of religion exclusion in their homes, to live a better life for their children, and because of major crop attacks on their land.
  • Roman Catholics were seeking to protect their children from Protestant indoctrination in the public schools. They began in the 1840’s to construct an entirely separate Catholic educational system.
chapter 15 the ferment of reform and culture 1790 1860
Chapter 15 – The Ferment of Reform and Culture [1790 – 1860]
  • As the young Republic grew, increasing numbers of Americans poured their considerable energies into religious revivals and reform movements.
  • Thomas Paine’s widely circulated book, “The Age of Reason” (1794), had shockingly declared that all churches were “set up to terrify and enslave mankind, and monopolize power and profit.”
  • Reformers promoted better public schools and rights for women as well as miracle medicines, polygamy, celibacy, rules by prophets, and guidance by spirits.
chapter 15 continued
Chapter 15 (continued)
  • Church attendance was still a regular ritual for about three fourths of the 23 million people in America in 1850.
  • Major societies were formed against alcohol, tobacco, profanity, and the transit of mail on the Sabbath day.
  • Beginning in the late 1790’s and boiling over into the early nineteenth century, the Second Great Awakening swept through America’s Protestant churches.
  • The U.S. imitated European styles of art.
  • Music was frowned upon because the Puritans didn’t like secular music.
chapter 16 the south and the slavery controversy 1793 1860
Chapter 16 – The South and the Slavery Controversy [1793 – 1860]
  • In 1850, only 1733 families owned more than 100 slaves, marking them wealthy of the South.
  • After the invention of the cotton gin, it became so much more profitable and production required more slaves. The South produced cotton for more than half of the world.
  • January 1, 1831 – William Lloyd Garrison published “The Liberator,” which contributed to the start of the Civil War between the North and the South.
chapter 16 continued
Chapter 16 (continued)
  • Whites that lived in the South that had a few slaves were considered aristocracy and whites without any slaves were considered “hillbillies.”
  • Fredrick Douglas was born a slave but escaped to the North and became the most prominent of the black abolitionists. As an abolitionist, he fought for the civil rights of his people after emancipation.
  • According to whites in the South, African slaves were valuable but a gamble. They also considered them investments too.
  • African slaves mixed Christianity with their native faith, singing Christian hymns as signs and symbols.
chapter 17 manifest destiny and its legacy 1841 1848
Chapter 17 – Manifest Destiny and Its Legacy [1841 – 1848]
  • John Tyler abandoned the Jacksonian democracy for the Whigs.
  • In Britain, slavery was abolished in 1834.
  • On April 25, 1846 Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande and attacked.
  • Throughout the time period of Manifest Destiny, railroad and canal construction were constant.
  • Thousands of pioneers pulled away from St. Louis and said farewell to civilization as the left the Mississippi River and headed across the plains to Oregon in the 1840’s.
chapter 17 continued
Chapter 17 (continued)
  • Texas became a leading issue in the campaign of 1844. John Tyler signed the joint of Texas 3 days before leaving office.
  • Maine and Canada disputed about territory under the Treaty of 1783.
  • By the 1850’s there were official guidebooks the helped travelers make their way along the Overland Trail to the West.
  • Polk wanted to lover the Tariff of 1842 from 32% to 25%.
  • After the Mexican War from 1846 – 1848, Mexico owed $13 million in damages.
chapter 18 renewing the sectional struggle 1848 1854
Chapter 18 – Renewing the Sectional Struggle [1848 – 1854]
  • General Lewis Cass was named father of “popular sovereignty” and ran for president in 1848, but lost to General Zach Taylor.
  • As a result of the massive gold discovery in 1848, CA drafted a constitution and then applied for free statehood, thus bypassing the usual territorial stage and avoiding becoming a slave state.
  • Using the Underground Railroad, a secret organization that took runaway slaves north to Canada, Harriet Tubman freed more than 300 slaves.
chapter 18 continued
Chapter 18 (continued)
  • California drafted their own Constitution, which excluded slavery in 1849.
  • By 1850, the South demanded a stricter fugitive slave law.
  • The Treaty of Guadalupe ended the Mexican-American War, but it started a whole new debate about the extension of slavery.
  • The South prized Cuba because they saw it as potential slave territory.
  • The Compromise of 1850 admitted California as a free state, leaving NM and UT open to slaver based on popular sovereignty.
  • Free Soil Party – formed by abolitionists in the North. They supported financial aid for internal improvements.
chapter 19 drifting toward disunion

Chapter 19Drifting Toward Disunion

1857, the Dread Scott case invalidates the Missouri Compromise.

1852, Uncle Tom’s Cabin is published. It became a very powerful piece and sparked up hatred that was a cause for the Civil War. It also sod several hundred thousand copies.

The North and South had very powerful arguments over the fate of Nebraska

The “Know-Nothing” group is created and are well known Nativists and anti-Catholics.

Hinton Helper published “The Impending Crisis of the South” as a response to Stowe’s novel.

The Panic of 1857 was caused by inflation due to the CA Gold Rush. It was very psychologically damaging and near 5,000 businesses shut down within the year. It had a much worse affect on the Northern states because of the businesses shutting down as opposed to farms.

Civil War had already broken out in Kansas between slave holders and abolitionists.

chapter 20 girding for war the north and the south

Chapter 20Girding for War: The North and the South

Abraham Lincoln swears in as president March 4, 1861.

As president Lincoln violated several constitutional laws in fevered attempts to preserve the Union.

South Carolina opened fire on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861. Starting what was known then as a war to preserve the unity of the United States.

The North had both the Naval power and the benefit of the economy, whereas the South had a much more organized military due to training of Southern men with a gun from a young age.

The Trent Affair in 1861 got the British involved when a British ship attempted to remove Confederate Diplomats from America and was barded by Union troops.

In 1863 there was a draft that was started but it was rather corrupt and easily avoided.

The National Banking System was established in 1863.

The war left the North with a very quickly expanding economy and the South devastated.

chapter 21 the furnace of the civil war

Chapter 21The Furnace of the Civil War

As president of the Union, Lincoln decided that an attack on a small force at Bull Run would be a good strategy, but it backfired due to the Union’s loss of the battle.

McClellan then decides to attempt to take Richmond which fails, leading to a very important Southern victory and McClellan losing control of his troop.

Soon after this Lincoln began to draft the Emancipation Proclamation.

After McClellan’s defeat at Richmond, Robert E. Lee launched the 2nd battle of Bull Run where he easily beat out Pope’s forces, and then made the foolish mistake of going for another attack at Antietam. This battle was the downhill point for the South.

Immediately after the battle Lincoln gave the Emancipation Proclamation, promising that post-war there would be a 13 Amendment to free all slaves.

After the EP many blacks in the North entered the ranks, comprising 10% of the Union forces.

From July 1, 1863 until July 3rd the battle of Gettysburg was fought, and once again was won by the North because of Lee’s hasty and cocky personality.

The final battle came at Appomattox when Lee finally surrenders to Grant.

chapter 22 the ordeal of reconstruction

Chapter 22The Ordeal of Reconstruction

The idea of “freedom” was very vague after the war.

Once freed Congress created the Freedman’s Bureau to help educate, organize, and care for former slaves.

After President Lincoln’s assassination Andrew Johnson took over. He was the only Southern politician to side with the North.

Lincoln had drafted the 10% reconstruction plan, meaning that 10% of a Southern state had to vote on and agree to the plans of rebuilding. Republicans believed that the states need a 50% agreement.

In order to find a loophole to slavery many Southerners established Black Codes which were binding contracts.

As the Congress reunited there was a proposed Civil Rights Bill which was vetoed and instead the 14th Amendment was created and ratified in 1868.

The Reconstruction Act was passed March, 1867.

Women were unhappy with being denied suffrage, but were not heard.

The South was still very displeased with Blacks being free, leading to the founding of organizations such as the KKK.

chapter 23 political paralysis in the gilded age

Chapter 23Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age

In 1868 Grant won the presidential election through the use of his war hero stature.

Theft and corruption was common in post Civil-war era. Two men, Fisk and Gould attempted to claim all gold marketing for themselves. Boss Tweed was a corrupt politician who gave in to bribery, conning, and rigging elections.

Thomas Nast was a very well known, expert satirical cartoonist.

The election of 1872 was a very brutal one, but Grant beat Greeley, the Liberal Republican/Democratic nominee.

The Panic of 1873 took a fairly heavy toll on the economy and the ideology of the people.

Mark Twain coined the name Gilded Age because it seemed pleasant on the surface, but was truly corrupt and shameful.

Hayes wins the election of 1876 and establishes the Compromise of 1877 which removed US soldiers occupying the South.

The Jim Crow Laws introduced and justified segregation of the South.

Garfield is president for a short while and is assassinated. He is then succeeded by VP Arthur, and in the election of 1884 Grover Cleveland is nominated.

chapter 24 industry comes of age

Chapter 24Industry Comes of Age

The train quickly became a piece of American culture with the track stretching from 35,000 miles in 1865 to over 190,000 miles in 1900

The plans for the Union Pacific Railroad were to allow tracks to go from Omaha, Nebraska out to California, and the Central Pacific went east from California.

In NYC Cornelius Vanderbilt began to improve upon the train idea with the use of steel tracks, an air brake, a luxury passenger car, and putting telegraphs on the train.

The use of the “Iron Horse” created a gigantic boom in business and trade.

Alexander Graham Bell creates the telephone and Thomas Edison creates the light bulb among other things.

  • The dominating businesses soon step into the picture with the steel industry and Andrew Carnegie and the oil industry with John Rockefeller.
  • Labor Unions begin to rise up and demand rights of workers in the miserable conditions in which they had to work under.
  • The Knights of Labor were a very radical equal rights union that came known to the public in 1881.
chapter 25
Chapter 25
  • The circus was a really popular form on entertainment of “pursuit of happiness.”

Cities grew up and out.

The skyscraper was made by perfecting the elevator.

Macy’s attracted urban middle-class shoppers and provided jobs for men and women.

Federal laws lengthened the list of undesirables.

The Chinese were the first ethnic group to be legally discriminated against.

Darwin broke new ground with his theory of “natural selection.”

Darwinism was survival of the fittest meaning only the strongest and wisest would survive.

Clergymen and theologians didn’t respond well to Darwin’s theory.

America’s were soon realizing that a government can’t function successfully if the people are uneducated.

Music and Art were soon gaining popularity.

Classical architecture was making a comeback.

chapter 26 the great west and the agricultural revolution
Chapter 26, The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution
  • White settlers began signing treaties with the chiefs of different tribes, pushing the Indians onto reservations.
  • Pioneers were cruel towards the Indians, killing innocent mothers & children.
  • Geronimo hated the Mexicans for killing his family but went there for safety when he escaped the confines of the reservation.
  • Almost all of the bison in North America were wiped out by 1885.
  • White men constantly picked on Indians to give up their religions & to convert to Christianity.
  • Pioneers moved west to mine for gold & silver
  • By the 1890s, the frontier was fading
  • Farming started becoming industrialized as machines were coming in to help with planting & harvesting crops
  • Republican William McKinley won the election of 1896, giving Republicans dominance in politics