How do religious people bring up their children Most people want the same or better chances for their children as they themselves had. If they are religious, they believe in the truths of their religion, which will lead to heaven, paradise, enlightenment or nirvana. For religious people , this is the best possible way to live because it will bring happiness and contentment. So they want their children to follow their religion too. • They will teach the children how to live their faith – how to be a Christian or Muslim, for example, especially in a secular society. • They will teach them how to behave – what the rules are for people of that religion. • They will make sure they are made members of that religion through special ceremonies. • They will make sure they learn how to worship, for example, by taking tem to their place of worship. • They will ensure their education includes learning about their faith.
Muslim beliefs about a new baby Islam teaches that all new-born babies are born as Muslims. Consequently, there is no need for a ceremony to welcome a new baby into the religion. However, a baby is welcomed into the world as soon as it is born. The father says the Adhaan (the Muslim call for prayer) into the baby’s right ear. “God is great …” Something sweet (e.g. a date, sugar) is often placed on the baby’s tongue. This is called Taneek and represents hope for sweetness in life.
God is great God is great God is great God is great I testify that there is no God but Allah I testify that there is no God but Allah I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of God I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of God Come to prayer Come to prayer Come to salvation Come to salvation God is great God is great There is no god except God
The Aqiqah ceremony Seven days after a baby is born the Aqiqah ceremony takes place, in which the baby is named. An animal sacrifice (e.g. goat) is made in the baby’s honour; two animals for a boy and one for a girl. A portion of this meat is then given to the poor and needy. A prayer is said into the baby’s ear (the Adhaan) and its head is shaved to remove any impurities. The baby’s hair is then weighed and the equivalent weight in gold or silver (money) is given to charity.
The Aqiqah ceremony continued … The baby then has its naming ceremony. Boys’ (last) names are often taken from the ninety-nine names of Allah and girls are often named after one of the wives of Muhammad. • Allah • Ar-Rahmaan • Ar-Raheem • Al-Malik • Al-Quddoos • As-Salaam • Al-Mu’min • Al-Muhalin • Al-Baari • Al-Jabbaar • etc All Muslim boys are circumcised. Sometimes this takes place at the Aqiqah ceremony, and sometimes at a separate khitan (circumcision) ceremony at any time before the boy reaches ten.
RITES OF PASSAGE – THE IMPORTANCE OF BAPTISM When a person becomes a Christian, at some stage, he or she will be baptised and welcomed into the family of the church. Baptism is an expression of faith, where a spiritual change takes place within you. During the ceremony, water will be used as an important symbol to represent the washing away of sin and being made clean.
There are two kinds of Baptism: INFANT BAPTISM: Most Christian churches baptise people when they are babies. The baptismal service is held around the font that contains water. The font is usually found just inside the front door of the Church and in baptism, it symbolises the child entering the family of the Church. In the presence of family and friends, the priest will make the sign of the cross on the baby’s forehead. When the baby is named, the water is blessed and sprinkled over the baby’s head three times; symbolising the Trinity. The water symbolises the cleansing of sin. Often a candle is lit to symbolise the journey from darkness into light.
Infant Baptism continued… INFANT BAPTISM: God parents play a very important role. They are chosen by the parents and promise to look after the child’s religious and spiritual upbringing until he/she is old enough to choose his/her own religious beliefs. What might the role of a godparent be? List the different things a godparent might do?
CONFIRMATION: Confirmation means to ‘Make Firm’. After being baptised as a baby, a young person may decide to show their commitment to God and Christianity by being confirmed. They would attend classes to learn about what it means to be a Christian. During their confirmation ceremony, the young person makes promises to follow God and Jesus teachings. By choosing to be confirmed, they are showing that they are old enough to make their own decisions about their beliefs.
BELIEVER’S BAPTISM: Some churches, including Baptists, believe that baptism should take place at an age when the child is old enough to understand their commitment to God and decide for themselves that they want to become Christians. At such services, the person being baptised is fully immersed or dipped into a special pool of water. This act again symbolises the washing away of sin.
Jewish beliefs about growing up Judaism teaches that girls become adults at twelve, and boys at thirteen. They become members of the Jewish community in their own right and must take responsibility for their own religious beliefs. A boy’s Bar Mitzvah ceremony marks his transition to adulthood. ‘Bar Mitzvah’ means ‘son of the commandments’. This means that he has committed to keeping the rules and laws set by God. Before his Bar Mitzvah ceremony he will be taught how to pray, read Hebrew and wear the tallitand tefillin. He must also study Judaism and Jewish history.
The Bar Mitzvah A boy’s Bar Mitzvah takes place on the first Shabbat (Day of Rest - Friday sunset to Saturday sunset) after his thirteenth birthday. He reads from the Torahscrolls in Hebrew during the service. A party often takes place that evening where the boy will thank his parents for bringing him up. He is now accepted to be an adult member of the synagogue, and can be called up to read from the Torah and make up the minyan – the ten adult males necessary to hold a service.
The Bat Mitzvah In some Jewish communities girls often have the same kind of ceremony as boys, and for them it is called Bat Mitzvah. However, in Orthodox Jewish communities women do not read the Torah in services. Instead girls may have a Bat Chayil ceremony.
Young People and Society
key terms Influence of people in the same age group Generation gap Peer pressure Older and younger people failing to understand each other Where your behaviour is controlled e.g. at home, by law, and you feel your voice isn’t getting heard and your criticised for behaving differently. Feeling marginalised
Dairy Jewish Food Laws Meat Poultry 30 minutes between eating meat after dairy 3 hour break between eating dairy after meat Kosher – animals that have split hooves and chew the cud e.g. Cows, sheep, goats and deer Trefah - Camels, horses, pigs Kosher – chicken, duck, turkey Trefah – birds of prey Vegetables & Fruit – can be eaten with anything BUT all must be free of insects – wash thoroughly Parev Shochet – a trained butcher. Slits the animals throat, hangs it up for blood to drain, soaks it in salt water to soak up all blood. Restaurants and shops have to be given a certificate by the Rabbi to show they're kosher. Fish "You shall not cook a kid in its mother's milk." (Deuteronomy 14:21) Kosher – must have scales and fins e.g. plaice, cod, herring, haddock, mackerel, salmon Trefah – no shellfish, (crabs, lobsters, prawns, mussels, shrimps, octopus, squid
Muslim Prayer • Salat (prayer) is the obligatory Muslim prayers, performed five times each day by every good Muslim. • The prayer ritual is repeated by hundreds of millions of people all round the world carrying it connects each Muslim to all others around the world, and to all those who have uttered the same words and made the same movements at different times in Islamic history. • God ordered Muslims to pray at five set times of day: • Salat al-fajr: dawn, before sunrise • Salat al-zuhr: midday, after the sun passes its highest • Salat al-'asr: the late part of the afternoon • Salat al-maghrib: just after sunset • Salat al-'isha: between sunset and midnight
Muslim commitment to Fasting • Sawm is fasting. It's the fourth of the Five Pillars of Islam. Muslims are required to fast during Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic calendar • During the 29/30 days of Ramadan all adult Muslims must give up the following things during the hours of daylight: • Food or drink of any sort • Smoking, including passive smoking • Sexual activity • There are many good reasons for this fast, including: • Obeying God • Learning self-discipline • Becoming spiritually stronger • Appreciating God's gifts to us • Sharing the sufferings of the poor and developing sympathy for them • Realising the value of charity and generosity
Advantages and disadvantages of young people committing to a religious faith
Why do you think the law has decided you have to be a certain age to do some things? • Should any ages be changed? Why?
UN Declaration of the Rights of the Child Which do you think are the most important for ALL children around the world to have?
Young People and School • The Church was the only provider of education in Britain until Victorian times. It was the influence of the Church on and within government that eventually led to government beginning to set up schools in Britain. • Until then, children were simply treated as small adults who were expected to work and contribute to the family income. The Elementary Education Act of 1880 was the first step in making education compulsory for all children. • Today, the lives of young people are very different. Education is a big part of life and schools have s responsibility to prepare young people fully for, not only work, but life in general. • School enables children to learn a wide range of skills, to develop socially and psychologically, to explore the world from the security of their classrooms and begin to become the adults they wish to be.
Young People and School • Historically, religion and schools have been very closely linked as shown above. • By 1944, education was compulsory for all children and the government passed an act that made the study of religion in school part of the curriculum for all. • Since then, there have been many changes to education in Britain, but Religious Studies has always been part of the curriculum.
Young People and School • Over the years, Religious Studies has changed dramatically to take account of the changing face of British Society. • In the past, Religious Studies has changed dramatically to take account of the changing face of British society. • In the past, Religious Studies concentrated in Christian teachings and beliefs. It assumed all students were believers and often reflected the teaching that happened in church Sunday schools. • Today, Religious Studies in schools recognises and celebrates that students come from a wide variety of religious and secular backgrounds. It focuses on key skills and concepts that enable students to learn, understand and question some of the most profound issues facing humankind. • It can help us understand and empathise with people who live life very differently from us. • By studying the different beliefs and values of others, it can help us to decide what is meaningful and important. It gives us an insight into the world we live in and our place within it.
Asking Philosophical Qns Listening to other points of view Justifying Views Personal Reflection Exploring beliefs and practices Deeper thinking Presentation Skills Develop understanding, respect and tolerance Skills in RE Debating Skills Evaluating Ideas Open-mindedness Empathy Expressing Beliefs Communication Skills Exploring Ethical Issues
Exam Practise Qns • What is the religious element of a school assembly for? (1 mark) • Give two reasons why Religious Studies is a subject in school. (2 marks) • ‘Religion should only be taught in faith schools.’ What do you think. Give reasons for your opinion. (3 marks) • Explain, using an example, how a baby is welcomed into the faith community. (6 marks) • ‘Religion is too old fashioned for young people today.’ Do you agree? Give reasons. Show more than one point of view. Refer to religious views.