slide1
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Circulation in the atmosphere

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 27

Circulation in the atmosphere - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 119 Views
  • Uploaded on

Circulation in the Atmosphere. Circulation in the atmosphere. Balance of forces in the fluid motion. Forces due to planetary rotation Centrifugal force  Geoid Coriolis force  Deflection of moving fluid Pressure gradient force From high to low pressure.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Circulation in the atmosphere' - nayef


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1
Circulation in the Atmosphere

Circulation in

the atmosphere

balance of forces in the fluid motion
Balance of forces in the fluid motion
  • Forces due to planetary rotation
    • Centrifugal force  Geoid
    • Coriolis force  Deflection of moving fluid
  • Pressure gradient force
    • From high to low pressure
slide3
Deflection of air flow due to Coriolis force

Low Pressure

_

Surfaces of

constant pressure

y (latitude)

x (longitude)

+

High Pressure

slide4
Balanced flow: geostrophic balance

Fpressure

Low Pressure

High Pressure

FCoriolis

  • Coriolis force 90 degrees to the right
  • Pressure force down the gradient
  • Air flows along the line of constant pressure
  • Particles will have the high pressure on their right (opposite in the southern hemisphere)
slide5
Geostrophic circulation
  • What would be the direction of (1) the pressure force and (2) the Coriolis force in geostrophic balance?
  • What would be the direction of geostrophic flow?

L

H

Cyclonic

Anti-cyclonic

slide6
Geostrophic circulation

Now we are in the Southern Hemisphere, what would be the direction of the geostrophic flow?

L

H

Cyclonic

Anti-cyclonic

slide7
Tropical cyclone: an intense low pressure system

H

H

L

H

H

Air circulates around the low pressure

slide8
Flow under radial pressure gradient
  • A bucket full of water
  • Open up a hole in the middle
    • Generates a low pressure
  • What would happen to the water?
    • Non-rotating
    • Rotating
slide9
Tropical cyclones
  • Coriolis effect
  • Air flows around the low pressure
  • counter-clockwise

Energy source

Warm, moist air from tropical ocean

slide11
Storm surge

Graphic illustration by National Hurricane Center

http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/surge/animations/hurricane_stormsurge.swf

slide12
Atmosphere-ocean interaction

What are the ways that the Earth’s atmosphere and ocean interact?

slide13
Wind-driven ocean currents
  • Atmospheric winds applies frictional force on the surface waters
  •  Ocean waves
  • Wind-driven circulation
    • (next week)
slide14
Water cycle

Implications to the salinity of seawater?

slide15
Temperature

ITCZ

Warm SST, low SSS

Excess precipitation

Salinity

Subtropics

Warm SST, high SSS

Excess evaporation

Sea surface temperature and salinity are controlled by air-sea interaction

4 components of air sea heat flux
4 components of air-sea heat flux
  • Incoming shortwave radiation
    • Latitudes, cloud cover
  • Outgoing longwave radiation
    • Temperature, water vapor, cloud cover
  • Sensible heat flux
    • Boundary layer turbulence
  • Latent heat flux
    • Evaporation
shortwave radiation
Shortwave radiation
  • Climatology
    • Average over long time period (1968-1996)
    • Upward positive (positive into the atmosphere)
factors controlling sw radiation
Factors controlling SW radiation
  • Latitude
  • Cloudines (albedo)
longwave radiation
Longwave radiation
  • Climatology (1968-1996)
    • Upward positive (positive into the atmosphere)
longwave radiation1
Longwave radiation
  • SST, cloud and water vapor
sensible heat flux
Sensible heat flux
  • Climatology (1968-1996)
    • Upward positive (positive into the atmosphere)
    • Turbulent heat exchange between ocean and atmosphere
latent heat flux
Latent heat flux
  • Climatology (1968-1996)
    • Upward positive (positive into the atmosphere)
    • Proportional to the rate of evaporation
latent heat flux1
Rate of evaporation
    • - Wind speed and relative humidity

Latent heat flux

net heat flux
Net heat flux
  • Climatology (1968-1996)
    • Upward positive (positive into the atmosphere)
slide26
Ocean heat transport
  • Ocean gains heat from the atmosphere in tropics
  • Ocean circulation transports heat poleward, and release back to the atmosphere at high latitudes
slide27
Biogeochemical cycle

(in October after midterm)

ad