GENDER AND REPRESENTATION IN FRENCH MEDIA SINCE 1970 Week 2: Regimes of the Gaze in Narrative Cinema. (Late) Landmarks in Legislation Around Women’s Rights in France. Early 1900s: women allowed to manage property and income – around a century later than women in the US and Britain.
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Week 2: Regimes of the Gaze in Narrative Cinema
May ‘68 France
Christine Bard, ‘Les FranceAntiféminismes de la deuxième vague’
Her thesis throughout her book Un siècle d’antiféminismeis that feminist movements are always shadowed by anti-feminist backlashes (cf. Susan Faludi, Backlash: the Undeclared War Against American Women, 1991, Susan J. Douglas, The Mommy Myth, 2004, or in France Elisabeth Badinter, Le conflit: la femme et la mère, 2010, and others).
A key feature of 1970s French feminism:
Two strands: the previously dominant ‘courant différentialiste’ versus the new more globally-influenced, equality-focused movements spearheaded by the Mouvement de libération des femmes (MLF).
pp. 309-10 ‘ FranceL’enjeu de la libérationsexuelle’: a problem area for feminism
‘Avoirunesexualité “épanouie” estdésormaisreconnucommeune condition nécessaire à l’équilibrepsychique. Les années 1970 célèbrent la fin d’un long siècle victorien. Les féministesontparticipé à cetteévolution, maisellesjouentaussi les trouble-fête, car nombreuxsontceux qui pensentqu’une femme “libérée” estune femme disponible, sexuellement, pour eux.’
La Marianne France
Burch and FranceSellier also find this model to be frequent if not dominant in the portrayal of romances in subsequent decades.
What about the New Wave?
See Geneviève Sellier, La Nouvelle Vague: un cinéma au masculin singulier. Paris: Broché, 2005,
Vincendeau(2000) in ‘New Wave, New Stars’ on ‘phantasmic male projections’ (p.113).
Truffaut: ‘Filmmaking is pointing the camera at beautiful women.’
5.7 million entries at French box office - succès de scandale
France’s answer to FranceEasy Rider (1969)?
Compare Mammuth(Benoît Delépine and Gustave de Kervern, 2010)
Bertrand FranceBlier filmography includes:
Mulvey France and her Antecedents
Baudry Franceemphasises the idea that the subject is constructed by the apparatus, which in fact constructs a subject who pursues the desire to return to the origins of desire.
Cf. Mulvey on the centrality of pleasure in the cinematic experience in general, not only narrative but also VISUAL pleasure, notably through:
Scopophilia– sexual pleasure derived from looking (linked to the libido)
N.B. Influence of the Women’s Movement in Britain on Mulvey, as outlined in her later Introduction to 2nd Edition of Visual and Other Pleasures (2009).