24. The Skeletal System. Learning Outcomes (cont.). 24.1 Describe the structure of bone tissue. 24.2 Explain the functions of bones. 24.3 Compare intramembranous and endochondral ossification. 24.4 Describe the skeletal structures and one location of each structure.
The Skeletal System
24.1 Describe the structure of bone tissue.
24.2 Explain the functions of bones.
24.3 Compare intramembranous and endochondral ossification.
24.4 Describe the skeletal structures and one location of each structure.
24.5 Locate the bones of the skull.
24.6 Locate the bones of the spinal column.
24.7 Locate the bones of the rib cage.
24.8 Locate the bones of the shoulders, arms, and hands.
24.9 Locate the bones of the hips, legs, and feet.
24.10 Describe the three major types of joints and give examples of each.
24.11 Describe the common diseases and disorders of the skeletal system.
CApply Your Knowledge
Holes in the matrix that contain osteocytes
Made of inorganic salts, collagen fibers, and proteins; between osteocytes
Layers of bone surrounding the canals of the osteons
Elongated cylinders that run the length of the bone
Canals that connect lacunae to each other
Why is it important for the bones to store calcium?
ANSWER: Every cell in the body needs calcium, so the body must have a large supply readily available.
What are the two types of bone growth?
ANSWER: Intramembranous ossification, in which bones begin as tough membrane and are turned to bone by osteoblasts, and endochondral ossification, in which primary ossification occurs in the diaphysis of the bone and secondary ossification occurs in the epiphysis.
Match the following:
___ Epicondyle A. A relatively deep pit or depression
___ Fontanels B. An interlocking line of union between bones
___ Fossa C. “Soft spots” felt on an infant’s skull
___ Process D. A knoblike process, usually larger than a tubercle
___ Suture E. A projection situated above a condyle
___ Tuberosity F. A prominent projection on a bone
Click to see Skull
Match the bones of the skull:
___ Occipital A. Form the upper jawbone
___ Sphenoid B. A thin bone that divides the nasal cavity
___ Mandible C. Part of the floor of the skull
___ Maxillae D. Form the prominence of the cheeks
___ Zygomatic E. Back of skull
___ Vomer F. Lower jawbone
Cervical – 7
Identify the sections of the spinal column and give the number of vertebrae for each.
Thoracic – 12
Lumbar – 5
Sacrum – 5 fused
Coccyx – 3 to 5 fused
True or False:
___ The sternum forms the front middle portion of the rib cage.
___ The xiphoid process is a boney tip of the sternum.
___ The true ribs are the first five pairs of ribs.
___ False ribs attach to the costal cartilage of rib pair seven.
___ Floating ribs attach to the xiphoid process.
do not attach anteriorly to any structure.
Match the following:
___ Clavicle A. Pectoral girdle
___ Radius B. Arm bones
___ Humerus C. Hands
Match the following:
A. Coxal bones B. Leg bones C. Foot bones
___ Tibia ___ Patella
___ Ilium ___ Ischium
___ Femur ___ Metatarsals
___ Pubis ___ Fibula
___ Calcaneus ___ Tarsals
What is the difference between osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis?
Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease that primarily affects weight-bearing joints.
24.1Bones consist of the following substances: osteons or Haversian systems; bone matrix between osteocytes (bone cells); collagen fibers and proteins; the lamella; and canaliculi.
The skeleton consists of long bone, short bones, flat bones and irregular bones
The diaphysis is the shaft of the long bone. The epiphysis is an end of a long bone. Articular cartilage covers the end of the long bones. The endosteum lines the medullary cavity. The periosteum is the membrane surrounding the diaphysis.
24.2 Bone functions include giving shape to body parts, protecting soft structures of the body, and assisting in movement. The red bone marrow is responsible for hematopoiesis. Bones also store calcium.
24.3Bones grow through the two types of ossification: intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification. The cartilage plate between the diaphysis and the epiphysis allows for growth of the long bone.
24.4Skeletal structures include the following: condyles, crests, epicondyles, foramina, fossae, heads, processes, sutures, trochanters, tubercles, and tuberosities.
24.5 The major bones of the skull are the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital bones. The skull also contains the fontanels, the mastoid processes, sphenoid,ethmoid, and ear ossicles. The facial bones include the mandible, maxillae, zygomatics, nasal and palatine bones, and the vomer.
24.6 The spinal column includes cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae; the sacrum; and the coccyx.
24.7 There are 12 pairs of ribs, a sternum, and the xiphoid process.
24.8 Each upper extremity includes the clavicle, scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges..
24.9 The bones of the hip, leg, and foot include the coxal bones, the femur, patella, tibia, fibula, metatarsals, tarsals, and phalanges.
24.10 The three joint types are fibrous joints, cartilaginous joints, and synovial joints. A synovial joint consists of hyaline-covered bones held together by a fibrous joint capsule, which is lined by a synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid. Ligaments hold the bones of these joints together.
24.11There are many common diseases and disorders of the bones and the skeletal system with varied signs, symptoms, and treatments. Examples include arthritis, bursitis, EFT, gout, kyphosis, lordosis, and scoliosis, as well as osteoporosis and osteosarcoma..
Rigid, the skeleton of habit alone upholds the human frame.
~ Virginia Woolf