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24. The Skeletal System. Learning Outcomes (cont.). 24.1 Describe the structure of bone tissue. 24.2 Explain the functions of bones. 24.3 Compare intramembranous and endochondral ossification. 24.4 Describe the skeletal structures and one location of each structure.

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The Skeletal System

learning outcomes cont
Learning Outcomes (cont.)

24.1 Describe the structure of bone tissue.

24.2 Explain the functions of bones.

24.3 Compare intramembranous and endochondral ossification.

24.4 Describe the skeletal structures and one location of each structure.

learning outcomes cont1
Learning Outcomes (cont.)

24.5 Locate the bones of the skull.

24.6 Locate the bones of the spinal column.

24.7 Locate the bones of the rib cage.

24.8 Locate the bones of the shoulders, arms, and hands.

learning outcomes cont2
Learning Outcomes (cont.)

24.9 Locate the bones of the hips, legs, and feet.

24.10 Describe the three major types of joints and give examples of each.

24.11 Describe the common diseases and disorders of the skeletal system.

Bones provide structure and support

206 bones plus joints and connective tissue


Axial~ 80 bones


Vertebral column

Rib cage

Appendicular~ 126 bones

Arms and legs

Pectoral girdle

Pelvic girdle

bone structure
Bone Structure
  • Bones contain various kinds of tissues
    • Osseous tissue
    • Blood vessels
    • Nerves
  • Osseous tissue can appear compact or spongy

Spongy (Cancellous)Bone

Compact Bone

bone structure cont
Bone Structure (cont.)
  • Structures within compact bone
    • Osteons
    • Bone matrix
    • Lamella
    • Lacunae
    • Canaliculi
  • All bones are made up of both compact and spongy bone
bone structure cont1
Bone Structure (cont.)
  • Long bones
    • Femur and humerus
    • Parts
      • Diaphysis
      • Epiphysis
      • Articular cartilage
      • Medullary cavity
      • Periosteum
      • Endosteum
bone structure cont2
Bone Structure (cont.)
  • Short bones
  • Flat bones
  • Irregular bones
  • Sesamoid bones
gender differences in skeletal structure
Male Skull

Larger and heavier

Forehead shorter

Face less round

Jaw larger

Male pelvis

Bones are heavier and thicker

Cavity is narrower

Gender Differences in Skeletal Structure
apply your knowledge



Apply Your Knowledge


Holes in the matrix that contain osteocytes

Made of inorganic salts, collagen fibers, and proteins; between osteocytes

Layers of bone surrounding the canals of the osteons

Elongated cylinders that run the length of the bone

Canals that connect lacunae to each other

  • Osteons
  • Bone matrix
  • Lamella
  • Lacunae
  • Caniculi



Very Good!



functions of bones
Functions of Bones
  • Give shape to body parts
  • Support and protect soft structures
  • Function in body movement
  • Red bone marrow – hematopoiesis
  • Store calcium
apply your knowledge1
Apply Your Knowledge

Why is it important for the bones to store calcium?

ANSWER: Every cell in the body needs calcium, so the body must have a large supply readily available.


bone growth
Bone Growth
  • Ossification
  • Intramembranous ossification
    • Bones begin as tough, fibrous membrane
    • Osteoblasts turn the membrane to bone
bone growth cont
Bone Growth(cont.)
  • Endochondral ossification
    • Bones begin as cartilage models
    • Diaphysis ~ primary ossification center


bone growth cont1
Bone Growth(cont.)
  • Endochondral ossification
    • Epiphysis ~ secondary ossification center
    • Epiphyseal disc ~ cartilage between epiphysis and diaphysis


building better bones
Building Better Bones
  • Bone – healthy diet
    • Vitamin D
    • Calcium
  • Bone-healthy exercises
    • Weight-bearing
    • Strength-training
building better bones cont
Building Better Bones (cont.)
  • Bone-healthy lifestyle – avoid smoking and alcohol
  • Bone tests
    • Bone density tests
    • Bone scan
apply your knowledge2
Apply Your Knowledge

What are the two types of bone growth?

ANSWER: Intramembranous ossification, in which bones begin as tough membrane and are turned to bone by osteoblasts, and endochondral ossification, in which primary ossification occurs in the diaphysis of the bone and secondary ossification occurs in the epiphysis.

Good Job!

bony structures
Bony Structures
  • Bones are designed with
    • Projections and processes
    • Depressions and hollows at articulations
    • Openings for blood vessels and nerves
apply your knowledge3
Apply Your Knowledge



Match the following:

___ Epicondyle A. A relatively deep pit or depression

___ Fontanels B. An interlocking line of union between bones

___ Fossa C. “Soft spots” felt on an infant’s skull

___ Process D. A knoblike process, usually larger than a tubercle

___ Suture E. A projection situated above a condyle

___ Tuberosity F. A prominent projection on a bone







the skull
The Skull
  • Two bone types – cranial and facial
  • Infant skulls
    • Bones not completely formed
    • Fontanels – tough membranes
    • Sutures
the skull cont
Cranial bones





External auditory meatus

Sphenoid and ethmoid bones

Ear ossicles




The Skull (cont.)

Click to see Skull

the skull cont1
The Skull (cont.)
  • Facial bones
    • Mandible ~ lower jaw
    • Maxillae ~ upper jaw
    • Zygomatic
      • Cheekbones
      • Fused nasal bones form bridge of nose
    • Palatine ~ hard palate
    • Vomer ~ divides nasal cavity

Click to see Skull

apply your knowledge4
Apply Your Knowledge


Match the bones of the skull:

___ Occipital A. Form the upper jawbone

___ Sphenoid B. A thin bone that divides the nasal cavity

___ Mandible C. Part of the floor of the skull

___ Maxillae D. Form the prominence of the cheeks

___ Zygomatic E. Back of skull

___ Vomer F. Lower jawbone






Very Good!


the spinal column
The Spinal Column
  • 7 cervical vertebrae
  • 12 thoracic vertebrae
  • 5 lumbar vertebrae
  • Sacrum
  • Coccyx
the spinal column cont
The Spinal Column (cont.)
  • Cervical vertebrae
    • Smallest and lightest
    • Located in the neck
    • Atlas
    • Axis
  • Thoracic vertebrae
    • Posterior attachment for ribs
  • Lumbar vertebrae
    • Small of the back
    • Bear most weight
the spinal column cont1
The Spinal Column (cont.)
  • Sacrum
    • A triangular-shaped bone
    • Five fused vertebrae
  • Coccyx
    • A small, triangular-shaped bone
    • 3 to 5 fused vertebrae
apply your knowledge5
Apply Your Knowledge


Cervical – 7

Identify the sections of the spinal column and give the number of vertebrae for each.

Thoracic – 12

Lumbar – 5


Sacrum – 5 fused

Coccyx – 3 to 5 fused

the rib cage
The Rib Cage
  • Sternum
    • Breastplate
    • Joins with the clavicles and most ribs
    • Xiphoid process

To ribcage

the rib cage cont
The Rib Cage (cont.)
  • Ribs
    • All are attached posteriorly to thoracic vertebrae
    • True – 1st 7 pairs
    • False – pairs 8, 9, and 10
    • Floating – pairs

To ribcage

apply your knowledge6
Apply Your Knowledge



True or False:

___ The sternum forms the front middle portion of the rib cage.

___ The xiphoid process is a boney tip of the sternum.

___ The true ribs are the first five pairs of ribs.

___ False ribs attach to the costal cartilage of rib pair seven.

___ Floating ribs attach to the xiphoid process.








do not attach anteriorly to any structure.

bones of the shoulders arms and hands
Bones of the Shoulders, Arms, and Hands
  • Shoulders
    • Clavicles ~ collar bones
    • Scapulae~ shoulder blade
  • Arm bones
    • Humerus
    • Radius
    • Ulna
bones of the shoulders arms and hands cont
Bones of the Shoulders, Arms, and Hands(cont.)
  • Hand
    • Carpals ~ 8
    • Metacarpals ~ 5
    • Phalanges ~ 14
      • 3 per finger
      • 2 per thumb
apply your knowledge7
Apply Your Knowledge


Match the following:

___ Clavicle A. Pectoral girdle

___ Radius B. Arm bones

___ Humerus C. Hands

___ Carpals

___ Scapula

___ Ulna

___ Phalanges

___ Metacarpals










bones of the hips legs and feet
Bones of the Hips, Legs, and Feet
  • Hip bones
    • Coxal bones
      • Ilium
      • Ischium
      • Pubis
bones of the hips legs and feet cont
Bones of the Hips, Legs, and Feet (cont.)
  • Bones of leg
    • Femur
    • Patella
    • Tibia
    • Fibula
bones of the hips legs and feet cont1
Bones of the Hips, Legs, and Feet (cont.)
  • Bones of the foot
    • Tarsals ~ 7
    • Metatarsals ~ 5
  • Phalanges ~ 14
    • 3 per toe
    • 2 per each big toe
apply your knowledge8
Apply Your Knowledge


Match the following:

A. Coxal bones B. Leg bones C. Foot bones

___ Tibia ___ Patella

___ Ilium ___ Ischium

___ Femur ___ Metatarsals

___ Pubis ___ Fibula

___ Calcaneus ___ Tarsals












  • Junctions between bones
  • Fibrous joints
    • Connected together with short fibers
    • Between cranial bones and facial bones
    • Sutures
joints cont
Joints (cont.)
  • Cartilaginous joints
    • Disc of cartilage
    • Slightly moveable
    • Between vertebrae
joints cont1
Joints (cont.)
  • Synovial joints
    • Covered with hyaline cartilage
    • Fibrous joint capsule 
    • Freely movable
    • Ligaments hold bones together
apply your knowledge9



Apply Your Knowledge

Match the following:

A. Fibrous joints B. Cartilaginous joints C. Synovial joints

____ Between cranial bones and facial bones

____ Covered with hyaline cartilage

____ Between vertebrae

____ Freely movable

____ Sutures in the skull






common diseases and disorders of the skeletal system
Common Diseases and Disorders of the Skeletal System
  • Arthritis
    • Osteoarthritis
      • Degenerative joint disease (DJD)
      • Weight-bearing joints
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
      • Chronic systemic inflammatory disease
      • Smaller joints and surrounding tissues
common diseases and disorders of the skeletal system cont
Common Diseases and Disorders of the Skeletal System (cont.)
  • Bursitis – inflammation of the bursa
  • Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT)
    • Primarily affect bone
    • Usually lower extremities
  • Gout – deposits of uric acid crystals in joints
common diseases and disorders of the skeletal system cont1
Common Diseases and Disorders of the Skeletal System (cont.)
  • Kyphosis – humpback
  • Lordosis –swayback
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta – brittle-bone disease
  • Osteoporosis – thin, porous bones
common diseases and disorders of the skeletal system cont2
Common Diseases and Disorders of the Skeletal System (cont.)
  • Osteosarcoma – bone cancer from osteoblasts
  • Paget’s disease – bones enlarge, become deformed, and weak
  • Scoliosis – an abnormal S-shaped curvature of the spine
apply your knowledge10
Apply Your Knowledge

What is the difference between osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis?

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease that primarily affects weight-bearing joints.

  • Rheumatoid arthritis chronic systemic inflammatory disease of smaller joints and surrounding tissues; it is thought to be an autoimmune disease.

Nice Work!

in summary
In Summary

24.1Bones consist of the following substances: osteons or Haversian systems; bone matrix between osteocytes (bone cells); collagen fibers and proteins; the lamella; and canaliculi.

The skeleton consists of long bone, short bones, flat bones and irregular bones

The diaphysis is the shaft of the long bone. The epiphysis is an end of a long bone. Articular cartilage covers the end of the long bones. The endosteum lines the medullary cavity. The periosteum is the membrane surrounding the diaphysis.

in summary1
In Summary

24.2 Bone functions include giving shape to body parts, protecting soft structures of the body, and assisting in movement. The red bone marrow is responsible for hematopoiesis. Bones also store calcium.

24.3Bones grow through the two types of ossification: intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification. The cartilage plate between the diaphysis and the epiphysis allows for growth of the long bone.

in summary cont
In Summary (cont.)

24.4Skeletal structures include the following: condyles, crests, epicondyles, foramina, fossae, heads, processes, sutures, trochanters, tubercles, and tuberosities.

24.5 The major bones of the skull are the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital bones. The skull also contains the fontanels, the mastoid processes, sphenoid,ethmoid, and ear ossicles. The facial bones include the mandible, maxillae, zygomatics, nasal and palatine bones, and the vomer.

in summary cont1
In Summary (cont.)

24.6 The spinal column includes cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae; the sacrum; and the coccyx.

24.7 There are 12 pairs of ribs, a sternum, and the xiphoid process.

24.8 Each upper extremity includes the clavicle, scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges..

in summary cont2
In Summary (cont.)

24.9 The bones of the hip, leg, and foot include the coxal bones, the femur, patella, tibia, fibula, metatarsals, tarsals, and phalanges.

24.10 The three joint types are fibrous joints, cartilaginous joints, and synovial joints. A synovial joint consists of hyaline-covered bones held together by a fibrous joint capsule, which is lined by a synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid. Ligaments hold the bones of these joints together.

in summary cont3
In Summary (cont.)

24.11There are many common diseases and disorders of the bones and the skeletal system with varied signs, symptoms, and treatments. Examples include arthritis, bursitis, EFT, gout, kyphosis, lordosis, and scoliosis, as well as osteoporosis and osteosarcoma..

end of chapter 24
End of Chapter 24

Rigid, the skeleton of habit alone upholds the human frame.

~ Virginia Woolf