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Systems. Chapters 35-40. Chapter 35: The Nervous System.

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Chapters 35-40

chapter 35 the nervous system
Chapter 35: The Nervous System
  • Function: Controls and coordinates functions throughout the body and responds to internal and external stimuli
  • Structures:
    • Neurons
    • Brain
    • Spinal Cord
nervous system
Nervous System
  • Neurons – cells that transmit electrical signals called impulses
  • Structure of a neuron:
    • Cell body—contains the nucleus and much of the cytoplasm.
    • Dendrites—short, branched extensions that spread out from the cell body.
    • Axon—long fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body.
    • Myelin sheath—insulating membrane that surrounds the axon
nervous system1
Nervous System
  • Brain – Contains approximately 100 billion neurons and has a mass of about 1.4 kg.
  • Structures:
    • The cerebrum—responsible for the voluntary, or conscious, activities of the body.
    • The cerebellum—located at the back of the skull and coordinates and balances the actions of muscles.
    • The brain stem—connects the brain and spinal cord.
      • Two regions: pons and the medulla oblongata
      • Controls blood pressure, heart rate, breathing and swallowing
    • Thalamus and hypothalamus
      • Thalamus—receives messages from all of the sensory receptors throughout the body and then relays it to the proper region of the cerebrum.
      • Hypothalamus—control center for hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger and body temperature.
nervous system2
Nervous System
  • Spinal Cord
  • Main communications link between the brain and the rest of the body.
  • Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves branch out from the spinal cord, connecting the brain to all the different parts of the body.
  • Reflex—quick, automatic response to a stimulus.
    • Allows the body to respond immediately
nervous system3
Nervous System
  • Sensory Receptors (5 types)
  • Pain Receptors –respond to chemicals released by damaged cells
  • Thermoreceptors – detect variations in temperature (skin, body core, & hypothalamus)
  • Mechanoreceptors – sensitive to touch, pressure, stretching of muscles, sound and motion
  • Chemoreceptors –sensitive to chemicals in the external environment (nose and taste buds)
  • Photoreceptors – sensitive to light (eyes)
  • Video
chapter 36 skeletal system
Chapter 36: Skeletal System
  • Function: supports the body, protects internal organs, provides for movement, stores mineral reserves, and provides a site for blood cell formation
  • Structures:
    • Bones
    • Ligaments
chapter 36 skeletal system1
Chapter 36: Skeletal System
  • Bones
  • A solid network of living cells and protein fibers that are surrounded by deposits of calcium salts.
  • Periosteum—is a tough layer of connective tissue surrounding the bone.
  • Haversion canals—network of tubes running through compact bone containing blood vessels.
  • Bone marrow—red and yellow
    • Red—produces red blood cells, some kinds of white blood cells and platelets
    • Yellow—is made up primarily from fat cells
chapter 36 skeletal system2
Chapter 36: Skeletal System
  • Ligaments – tough connective tissue that hold bones together
  • Joint – place where one bone attaches to another bone
  • Immovable joints—allow no movement. Bone are interlocked and held together
    • Bones in the skull
  • Slightly moveable joints—small amount of restricted movement.
    • Between adjacent vertebrae
  • Freely moveable joints—movement in one or more directions
    • Ball-and-socket, hinge joints, pivot joints and saddle joints
chapter 36 muscular system
Chapter 36: Muscular System
  • Function: Movement, however, the type of movement is dependent on the location and type of muscle present
  • Structures:
    • Skeletal Muscles
    • Smooth Muscles
    • Cardiac Muscles
chapter 36 muscular system1
Chapter 36: Muscular System
  • Skeletal Muscles—usually attached to bones.
  • Are large, striated, have many nuclei, and vary in length from 1 mm to about 30 cm.
  • Often called muscle fibers.
  • Responsible for voluntary movements.
chapter 36 muscular system2
Chapter 36: Muscular System
  • Smooth muscles—Usually not under voluntary control.
  • Spindle-shaped, has one nucleus, and is not striated.
  • Found the walls of hollow structures such as the stomach, blood vessels, and intestines.
  • Move food through your digestive tract, controls the way blood flows through your circulatory system, and decrease the size of your pupils in bright light.
  • Can function without nervous stimulation.
chapter 36 muscular system3
Chapter 36: Muscular System
  • Found in just one place in the body—the heart.
  • Is striated like skeletal muscle—cells are smaller.
  • Usually have one nucleus, but may have two.
  • Not under the direct control of the CNS and are connected to their neighbors by gap junctions.
chapter 36 muscular system4
Chapter 36: Muscular System
  • How muscles and bones interact
  • Skeletal muscles are joined to bones by tough connective tissues called tendons.
  • Most skeletal muscles work in opposing pairs.
    • When one muscle contracts the other relaxes.
    • Muscles of the upper arm.
  • A controlled movement requires contraction by both muscles.
chapter 36 integumentary system
Chapter 36: Integumentary System
  • Function: Serves as a barrier against infection and injury, helps to regulate body temperature, removes waste products from the body, and provides protection against ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
  • Structures:
    • Skin
    • Hair
    • Nails
chapter 36 integumentary system1
Chapter 36: Integumentary System
  • Skin: two layers
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
  • Epidermis—outer layer of the skin
    • The outside of the epidermis is made up of dead cells.
    • Inner layer is made up of living cells.
  • Dermis—inner layer of skin
    • Interacts with other body systems to maintain homeostasis by helping to regulate body temperature.
chapter 36 integumentary system2
Chapter 36: Integumentary System
  • Hair and Nails
  • Basic structure is keratin
  • Hair
    • Protects the scalp from ultraviolet light.
    • Provides insulation from the cold.
    • Prevent dirt and other particles from entering the body.
  • Nails
    • Grow at an average rate of 3 mm per month.
    • Grow from an area of rapidly dividing cells. known as the nail root.
chapter 37 circulatory system
Chapter 37: Circulatory System
  • Functions: Transportation system of the body and is involved in respiration, nutrition, waste removal, immunity, and thermal regulation
  • Structures:
    • Heart
    • Vessels
    • Blood
chapter 37 circulatory system1
Chapter 37: Circulatory System
  • The Heartis a hollow organ that is about the size of your clenched fist.
  • Contracts on average 72 time a minute, pumping about 70 mL of blood with each contraction.
  • Each side contains two chambers— the upper chamber, which receives blood is the atrium, and the lower chamber, which pumps blood out of the heart, is the ventricle.
  • The Heart
chapter 37 circulatory system2
Chapter 37: Circulatory System
  • Circulation through the heart
  • Blood enters the right atrium of the heart, from the rest of the body, through the superior or inferior Vena Cava.
  • From the right atrium it moves to the right ventricle where it is pumped to the lungs through the pulmonary arteries.
  • The now oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart through the pulmonary veins and enters the left atrium.
  • Lastly, the blood moves down into the left ventricle were it is pumped to the rest of the body through the aorta.
chapter 37 circulatory system3
Chapter 37: Circulatory System
  • Vessels
  • 3 types
    • Arteries—carry blood away from the heart
      • Main artery leading away from the heart is the Aorta
    • Capillaries—have one layer of cells where diffusion and exchange of materials takes place
    • Veins—carry blood back to the heart
      • Blood reenters the heart through the inferior and superior Vena Cava
chapter 37 circulatory system4
Chapter 37: Circulatory System
  • Blood
  • Red Blood Cells—transport oxygen
    • Hemoglobin—iron-containing protein that binds to oxygen in the lungs and transports it.
  • White Blood Cells—guard against infection, fight parasites, and attack bacteria.
  • Platelets—plasma proteins that make blood clotting possible
    • Hemophilia—genetic disorder in the blood clotting pathway.
chapter 37 respiratory system
Chapter 37: Respiratory System
  • Function: Basic function is to bring about the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood, the air, and tissues.
  • Structures: There are 3 major parts of the respiratory system:
    • The airway
    • Lungs
    • Muscles of respiration. 
chapter 37 respiratory system1
Chapter 37: Respiratory System
  • The airway
    • The airway includes the nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles
  • Pharynx—serves as a passageway for both air and food.
  • Larynx—contains two highly elastic folds of tissue known as the vocal cords.
  • Trachea—windpipe
  • Bronchi—two large passageways that lead from the trachea to the lungs.
chapter 37 respiratory system2
Chapter 37: Respiratory System
  • The lungsare a pair of spongy, air-filled organs located on either side of the chest
  • There are 150 million alveoli in each healthy lung.
  • Oxygen dissolves in the moisture on the inner surface of the alveoli and then diffuses across the thin-walled capillaries into the blood.
  • Carbon dioxide diffuses in the opposite direction.
chapter 37 respiratory system3
Chapter 37: Respiratory System
  • Muscles of Respiration
  • Diaphragm—large, flat muscle located at the bottom of the chest cavity.
  • When you breathe in, or inhale, the diaphragm contracts and the rib cage rises up.
    • Creates a partial vacuum.
    • Atmospheric pressure then fills the lungs with air.
  • Exhaling is passive. The rib cage lowers and the diaphragm muscle relaxes and the pressure in the chest cavity becomes greater than atmospheric pressure
chapter 38 digestive system
Chapter 38: Digestive System
  • Function: The digestive system is a group of organs working together to convert food into energy and basic nutrients to feed the entire body
  • Structures:
    • Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, small intestine, and large intestine
chapter 38 digestive system1
Chapter 38: Digestive System
  • Mouth
    • Chewing begins the process of mechanical digestion—the physical breakdown of large pieces into smaller pieces.
    • Saliva—contains amylase, an enzyme that breaks the chemical bonds in starches and releases sugars.
  • Esophagus
    • Food tube—carries food from the mouth to the stomach
chapter 38 digestive system2
Chapter 38: Digestive System
  • Stomach—large muscular sac that continues the mechanical and chemical digestion of food.
    • Chemical digestion—pepsin (an enzyme) and hydrochloric acid begins the process of protein digestion
    • Mechanical digestion—muscles contract to churn and mix stomach fluids and food producing a mixture known as chyme.
  • Liver—produces bile which assists in breaking down fats
chapter 38 digestive system3
Chapter 38: Digestive System
  • Small intestine—location of most of the chemical digestion and absorption of the food you eat
  • The folded surface of the small intestine is covered with fingerlike projections called villi.
    • Each villi is covered by thousands of fingerlike projections called microvilli.
    • Provide and enormous surface area for absorption.
  • Large intestine—function is to remove water from the undigested material that is left.
chapter 38 excretory system
Chapter 38: Excretory System
  • Function: The excretory system maintains the homeostasis of several important internal conditions by controlling the excretion of substances out of the body. 
  • Structures:
    • Kidneys
    • Bladder
chapter 38 excretory system1
Chapter 38: Excretory System
  • Kidneys—remove waste products from the blood; maintain blood pH; and regulate the water content of the blood, and therefore, blood volume.
  • Located on either side of the spinal column near the lower back.
  • Activity of kidneys is controlled by the composition of blood itself.
  • Bladder—saclike organ where urine is stored before being excreted
chapter 38 excretory system2
Chapter 38: Excretory System
  • If anything goes wrong with the kidneys, serious medical problems follow.
  • Transplant of a healthy kidney from a compatible donor.
  • Kidney dialysis—blood is removed from the body through a tube and pumped through special tubing that removes waste products.
    • The purified blood is then returned to the body.