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January 21 st through 29 th. Thursday, January 21 st. Go over syllabus Introductions Assign books. Friday, January 22 nd. American Literary Periods Personal essays, narratives, and memoirs. American Literary Periods and their characteristics. Literary Periods. Puritan/Colonial

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thursday january 21 st
Thursday, January 21st
  • Go over syllabus
  • Introductions
  • Assign books
friday january 22 nd
Friday, January 22nd
  • American Literary Periods
  • Personal essays, narratives, and memoirs
literary periods
Literary Periods
  • Puritan/Colonial
  • Revolutionary/Age of Reason
  • Romanticism
  • American Renaissance/Transcendentalism
  • Realism
  • Modernism
  • Harlem Renaissance
  • Post Modernism
  • Contemporary
puritan colonial 1650 1750
Puritan/Colonial (1650-1750)

Genre/Style

  • Sermons
  • Diaries
  • Personal Narratives
  • Written in plain style
puritan colonial
Puritan/Colonial

Effects/Aspects

  • Instructive
  • Reinforces authority of the Bible and Church

Historical Context

  • A person’s fate is determined by God
  • All people are corrupt and must be saved by Christ
puritan colonial examples
Puritan/Colonial Examples
  • Bradford’s Of Plymouth Plantation
  • Rowlandson’s “A Narrative of the Captivity”
  • Equiano’s narrative
  • Though not written during Puritan times, The Crucible and The Scarlet Letter depict life during the time when Puritan theocracy prevailed.
revolutionary age age of reason
Revolutionary Age/Age of Reason

1750-1800

Genre/Style

  • Political pamphlets
  • Travel writing
  • Highly ornate style
  • Persuasive writing

Effect/Aspects

  • Patriotism grows
  • Instills pride
  • Creates common agreement about issues
  • National mission and the American character
revolutionary age of reason
Revolutionary/Age of Reason

Historical Context

  • Tells readers how to interpret what they are reading to encourage Revolutionary War support
  • Instructive in values

Examples

  • Writings of Jefferson, Paine, and Henry
  • Franklin’s Poor Richard’s Almanac
  • Franklin’s “The Autobiography.
romanticism 1800 1860
Romanticism (1800-1860)

Genre/Style

  • Character sketches
  • Slave narrative
  • Poetry
  • Short Stories

Effect/Aspects

  • Value feeling and intuition over reason
  • Journey away from corruption of civilization and limits of rational thought toward the integrity of nature and freedom of imagination
  • Helped instill proper gender behavior for men and women
romanticism
Romanticism

Historical Context

  • Expansion of magazines, newspapers, and book publishing
  • Slavery debates
  • Industrial revolution brings ideas that the “old way of doing things are now irrelevant.

Examples

  • Washington Irving’s “Rip Van Winkle”
  • Poems of Emily Dickinson
  • Poems of Walt Whitman
american renaissance transcendentalism
American Renaissance/ Transcendentalism

Genre/Style

  • Poetry
  • Short Stories
  • Novels
  • Hold readers’ attention through dread of a series of terrible possibilities

Effects/Aspects

  • True reality is spiritual
  • Comes from 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant
  • Idealists
  • Self-reliance and individualism
american renaissance transcendentalist
American Renaissance/Transcendentalist

Historical context

  • Portrayals of alluring antagonists whose evil characteristics appeal to sense of awe
  • Stories of persecuted young girl forced apart from her true love
  • People seeking the true beauty in life and in nature
  • A belief in true love and commitment
realism 1850 1900
Realism (1850-1900)

Genre and Style

Characteristics

Examines realities of life, human frailty, local color

Depiction of ordinary people in everyday life

Objective narrator

Does not tell reader how to interpret the story

  • Novels and Short Stories
realism
Realism

Historical Context

Examples

Crane’s The Red Badge of Courage

The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass

  • Civil War (1861-1865) brings demand for “truer” type of literature that does not idealize people or places
  • Dialogue includes regional voices
modernism
Modernism

Genre and Style

Characteristics

Pursuit of the American Dream

America as the land of Eden

Soon that optimism and a belief in the importance of the individual is overwhelmed by themes of alienation and disillusionment

  • Novels
  • Plays
  • Poetry
  • Experimental as writers seek a unique style
  • Use of interior monologue and stream of consciousness
modernism1
Modernism

Historical context

Examples

SteinbecksThe Grapes of Wrath

Eliot’s The Wasteland

Hemingway’s A Farewell to Arms

Williams The Glass Menagerie

Chopin’s The Awakening

  • Writers reflect the ideas of Darwin and Marx
  • Overwhelming technological changes of 20th Century
harlem renaissance 1920s
Harlem Renaissance (1920s)

Genre and Style

Characteristics

Gave birth to gospel music

Blues and jazz transmitted across America via radio

  • Outgrowth of Modernism
  • Allusions to African-American spirituals
  • Uses structure of blues songs in poetry (repetition)
  • Superficial stereotypes revealed to be complex characters
harlem renaissance
Harlem Renaissance

Historical Context

Examples

Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun

Wright’s Native Son

Hurston’s Their Eyes Were Watching God

Ellison’s Invisible Man

  • Mass African-American migration to Northern urban centers
  • African-Americans have more access to media and publishing outlets after they move north
post modernism 1950 to present
Post-Modernism (1950 to present)

Genre/Style

Characteristics

Concern with individual in isolation

Social issues as writers align with feminist and ethnic groups

Erodes distinctions between classes of people

Insists that values are not permanent but only “local” or “historical”

  • Narratives: both fiction and non-fiction
  • Metafiction
  • Magical Realism
  • Mixing of fantasy with nonfiction; blurs lines of reality for reader
  • No heroes
  • Humorless
post modernism
Post-Modernism

Historical Context

Examples

Feminist and social issue poets: Plath, Angelou

Capote’s In Cold Blood

Stories of Bradbury and Vonnegut

Salinger’s Catcher in the Rye

Beat poets: Kerouac, Ginsberg

  • Post-World War II prosperity
  • Media culture interprets values
contemporary 1970s to present
Contemporary (1970s to present)

Genre/Style

Characteristics

Concern with connections between people

  • Continuation of Post-Modernism
  • Narratives: fiction and non-fiction
  • Autobiographical essays
  • Anti-heroes
  • Emotion-provoking
  • Humorous Irony
contemporary
Contemporary

Historical context

Examples

Poetry of Dove, Cisneros, Soto

Walker’s The Color Purple, Haley’s Roots, Morrison’s Beloved

Nonfiction by Didion, Dillard, and Krakauer

O’Brien’s The Things They Carried

Megastars: King, Crichton, Grisham, Clancy

  • Beginning a new century
  • Media culture interprets value
  • Influence of war (Vietnam; Gulf; Iraq)
this i believe
This I Believe
  • http://thisibelieve.org/essay/4108/