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Political Participation in the Age of Globalization: The role of the culturally situated self on the analysis of political protest Erik H Cohen Jose Valencia University of Bar Ilan University of the Basque Country. Definition.

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Political Participation in the Age of Globalization: The role of the culturally situated self on the analysis of political protestErik H Cohen Jose ValenciaUniversity of Bar Ilan University of the Basque Country


Power distance refers to the extent to which members of a given society expect and accept that power is distributed unequally in society. In high power distance societies, an emotional distance separates subordinates from authorities. In low power distance societies there is an expectation of relative equitable distribution of power.

the problem
The problem

What is the relationship between non-institutional political participation or political protest and the cultural syndrome of power distance ?

data from large scale international surveys
Data from large-scale international surveys

Third wave of the World Values Survey (1996)

Human Development Index (UNDP 1998)

Freedom House (1998)

five specified types of political protest
Five specified types of political protest

Sign a petition

Join a boycott

Attend a lawful demonstration

Join an unofficial strike

Occupy a building

Where 1 = never, 2 = might do; 3 = I have done.

correlations matrix
Correlations matrix

1 2 3 4 5

Signed a petition 100 90 71 59 55

Joined a boycott 90 100 67 72 48

Attended a lawful demonstration 71 67 100 63 51

Joined an unofficial strike 59 72 63 100 63

Occupied a building or factory 55 48 51 63 100

partial order posac
Partial Order (POSAC)

98% of the profile pairs were correctly represented

partial order posac1
Partial Order (POSAC)

With categories of power distance as external variables

conclusion 1
Conclusion / 1

1/The Factor Analysis verifies the strong link between the types of political protest.

2/The Smallest Space Analysis (SSA) shows a clear progression from the least involved and least demanding form of activity to the most involved and most demanding.

conclusion 2
Conclusion / 2

3/ The Multidimensional partial order analysis classifies the various countries along a diagonal from those with low levels of political participation to those with higher levels.

4/ Lawful demonstrations are found to play a pivotal role in the typology of political protest, between the less involved anonymous types of protest and the more demanding and personally engaging types.

conclusion 3
Conclusion / 3

5/A correlation (partial mediation analysis) was recognized between power distance and political protest. This seems to indicate that participationin these types of political protest is linked to the culturally mediated self organized around the distribution of power in society.