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Need for Energy. SQA Questions. Need for energy WYSK. nput. ood. utput. sed. Energy i____ = total energy of all f____ eaten Energy o____ = total energy u____ by the body Energy is used in e.g. m________, making h____

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need for energy

Need for Energy

SQA Questions

need for energy wysk
Need for energy WYSK

nput

ood

utput

sed

  • Energy i____ = total energy of all f____ eaten
  • Energy o____ = total energy u____ by the body
  • Energy is used in e.g. m________, making h____
  • If energy input is g_______ than output the body will g____ weight
  • If energy input is l______ than energy output the body will l_____ weight
  • Extraenergy is s_____ as f___.

ovement

eat

reater

ain

ess

ose

tored

at

gas exchange wysk
Gas exchange WYSK

xygen

bsorbed

  • In breathing, o______ gas is a________ and c_______ dioxide is released
  • Air passes down the t_____ which divides into two b______, one goes to each l____.
  • Each bronchus divides many times into b_________ which take air deep into l____. The bronchioles end in a number of thin walled a___ s____.
  • The air sacs are covered with a n_______ of b______ c__________

arbon

rachea

ung

ronchi

ronchioles

ung

ir

acs

etwork

lood

apillaries

lungs
Lungs

1

trachea

bronchi

8

bronchioles

7

2

ribs

lungs

6

3

lungs

ribs

5

diaphragm

4

breathing credit
Breathing CREDIT

ontract

  • During inhalation
  • intercostal muscles c___________ the ribcage moves u__ and o__. The diaphragmcontracts and moves d_____. In the chest, volume i_________ and p________ decreases.
  • Air moves i____ the lungs
  • During exhalation
  • intercostal muscles r_______the ribcage moves d_____ and ___. The diaphragm relaxes and moves u___. In the chest, volume d_________ and pressure i__________.
  • Air moves o____ of the lungs

p

ut

ncreases

own

ressure

nto

elax

own

in

p

ecreases

ncreases

ut

efficient gas exchange credit
Efficient gas exchange CREDIT
  • Lungs are efficient gas exchange structures because
  • Very l_____ s_______ a_______ due to millions of air sacs
  • The lining of air sacs is m_____ allowing d_________ of gases
  • The l______ of air sacs is very t____ allowing r_____ diffusion of gases
  • Millions of b_____ c__________ provide a r____ b______ supply to the air sacs for t__________ of gases

arge

urface

rea

oist

iffusion

ining

hin

apid

lood

apillaries

ich

lood

ransport

gas exchange in the lungs credit
Gas exchange in the lungsCREDIT

Blood flow in

1

Capillary

2

Air out

9

Lining of air sac

8

Air in

3

7

CO2

oxygen

6

4

Blood flow out

5

Red blood cell

slide8

ow

xygen

igh

out

  • Blood flowing into the capillary network is l___ in o_____ and h_____ in CO2
  • CO2 diffuses ___ of the blood and into a__ s____ or a________
  • Oxygen diffuses out of the _______ and into the b_____

ir

ac

lveolus

Air sac ( alveolus)

lood

mucus cilia and cartilage wysk
Mucus cilia and cartilage WYSK
  • In the trachea and bronchi
  • B________ ( and dirt) are t______ in sticky m_____
  • Tiny hairs called c_____ push the m______ and t_______ b_______ and dirt back u_ t_________ the throat
  • The trachea and bronchi are s____________ by rings of c_________ which prevent them from c__________ during b_________

rapped

acteria

ucus

ilia

ucus

rapped

acteria

p

owards

trengthened

artilage

ollapsing

reathing

slide10

Rings of cartilage

U

Trachea

Bronchiole

V

Bronchus

Bronchiole

air sac

capillary

Q

T

S

slide12

Increases from 18 breaths /min to 25

Volume of each breath increases from 500 to 3500

3500 X 25 = 87,500

87,500

slide13

E -ribs

F- diaphragm

A - mucus

slide14

6

7

4

slide16

Allows gases to (dissolve and) diffuse

Allows rapiddiffusion / diffusion can only occur over small distances

slide18

Keeps trachea / bronchi open

Beat upwards to mouth carrying mucus with trapped dirt and germs

slide19

3.2L

0.8L

2.4L

slide20

0.8L

As pressure increases volume decreases

Volume does not go below 2.4L

slide21

0.6L

15

0.6L + 1.6 +3.1 +2.6 = 7.9

7.9

slide22

Prevent trachea from collapsing during breathing

mucus

Cilia sweep the mucus and trapped particles back up towards the throat

the heart wysk
The Heart WYSK
  • The heart has __ chambers. Two upper chambers called the right and left ______. Two lower chambers called the right and left ________
  • Bloodreturns from the body to the right a______ in the v____ c_____. When it is full the muscular wall c_________ and squeezes blood through a v_____ into the right _______

4

atrium

ventricle

trium

ena

ava

ontracts

alve

ventricle

slide25

ight

ontracts

alve

ulmonary

rtery

  • When the r_____ ventricle c______ blood is forced through a v______ into the p________ a______ which carries d___________ blood to the l_____
  • Oxygenated blood returns from the lungs in the p__________ v_____. The left a_____ receives the blood. When it is full the muscular wall c_________ and squeezes blood through a v_____ into the left _______.

eoxygenated

ungs

ulmonary

ein

trium

ontracts

alve

ventricle

slide26

eft

ontracts

alve

orta

xygenated

  • When the l_____ ventricle c______ blood is forced through a v______ into the a______ which carries o___________ blood to the whole ______
  • Valves prevent b________ of blood
  • The m______ wall of the left ventricle is much t________ because it has to pump blood all round the b______
  • The heart muscle obtains its blood supply from c________ a________

body

ackflow

uscle

hicker

ody

oronary

rteries

slide27

rteries

apillaries

  • Blood leaves the heart in a_______, flowsthrough c________ and returns to the heart in v_______.
  • The pulse indicates blood flowing in an a________.

eins

rtery

blood g
Blood (G)

ed

lasma

  • Blood consists of r___ blood cells and white blood cells carried in a liquid called p_____
  • Red blood cells:
  • Transport o_______round the body.
  • Contain h___________
  • Donotcontain an______ and are very s____
  • Plasma is the l______part of blood
  • transportsc_____
  • carriesdissolved f____fromthesmall intestinetob______ cells
  • Carriesd________ CO2from thebody cellsback to thel______

xygen

aemoglobin

ucleus

mall

iquid

ells

ood

ody

issolved

ungs

haemoglobin c
Haemoglobin (C)

igment

xygen

  • Haemoglobinis the red p________in blood cells which carries o________ from the lungs to the body cells
  • At the lungs o_______ diffuses into the blood from the air sacs and c_______ with the haemoglobin of the red blood cell to become o____________
  • At the b______ cellsoxyhaemoglobin b____ d_____ easily to release its o_____

xygen

ombines

xyhaemoglobin

ody

reaks

own

xygen

capillary network g
Capillary network (G)

lose

ontact

  • Living cells are in c_____ c_______ with capillaries
  • O______ and glucosed______ from the blood c__________to the c_____
  • C__ and waste diffuse from the c____to the blood capillaries

xygen

iffuse

ells

apillaries

O2

ells

capillary network c
Capillary network (C)
  • A capillary network has
  • A l______ surface area
  • The lining of a capillary is v___ t____ (only o__ cell thick) allowing r_______ diffusion
  • This allows e________ g__ e________ by diffusion

arge

ery

hin

ne

apid

fficient

as

xchange

slide32

lungs

Pulmonary vein

Pulmonary artery

RA

LA

X

X

X

RV

LV

X

aorta

Vena cava

body

slide33

Vena cava

Pulmonary vein

RA

LA

X

X

RV

LV

X

X

aorta

Pulmonary artery

slide34

body

Vena cava

aorta

RA

LA

X

X

X

RV

LV

X

Pulmonary artery

Pulmonary vein

lungs

slide35

body

Right atrium

Right

ventricle

lungs

left

ventricle

body

slide36

deoxygenated blood to lungs

Oxygenated blood to body

Oxygenated blood from lungs

aorta

pulmonary artery

Pulmonary vein

valve

Left atrium

deoxygenated blood from body

valve

vena cava

right atrium

valve

Left ventricle

Right ventricle

slide37

LA

RA

LV

Rv

slide38

C

A

B

D

2

1

3

4

Blood flows backwards

slide39

LA

RA

LV

slide40

opens

closes

opens

backflow

closes

blood is in pulmonary artery

RV, PA,lungs.PV,LA,LV,AORTA,BODY,VENA CAVA,RV

slide42

arteries

capillaries

veins

pulse

artery

Pulmonary arteries – go to lungs to get oxygen

slide43

Coronary artery

Mesenteric artery

renal artery

hepatic artery

Coronary vein

Hepatic portal vein

renal vein

hepatic vein

slide44

lungs

Pulmonary artery

Pulmonary vein

Vena cava

aorta

coronary artery

Hepatic vein

hepatic artery

Hepatic portal vein

kidney

slide45

Left atrium

vena cava

aorta

pulmonary artery

liver

Mesenteric artery

hepatic portal vein

Renal artery

Renal vein

slide46

liver

aorta

Left atrium

false

true

true

false

slide47

d

g

i

f

h

b

a

e

c

i

slide48

g

j

i

f

h

a

e

b

d

c