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Tolkien. Thomas Honegger http:// www. content/top/ index.xml. Languages. ‘Early’ Languages. Animalic (invented by his young cousins Mary and Marjorie Incledon) Dog nightingale woodpecker forty = You are an ass

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Thomas Honegger

early languages
‘Early’ Languages
  • Animalic (invented by his young cousins Mary and Marjorie Incledon)
  • Dog nightingale woodpecker forty = You are an ass
  • Nevbosh (New Nonsense; developed by Marjorie and Ronald)
  • Dar fys ma vel gom co palt ’HocPys go iskili far maino woc?Pro si go fys do roc deDo cat ym maino bocteDe volt fact soc ma taimful gyroc!’
  • There was an old man who said ‘How / Can I possibly carry my cow? / For if I were to ask it / To get in my basket / It would make such a terrible row!’ (Carpenter 44)
early languages1
‘Early’ Languages
  • Naffarin (showed a great deal of Spanish influence); abandoned in favour of
  • Gothic
  • Joseph Wright, 1910, Primer of the Gothic Language, Oxford: At the Clarendon Press.
  • historic language which had ceased to be spoken in the 16th or 17th centuries (‘Krimgotisch’)
  • Gothic texts: Ulfila Bible translation (4th century)
  • commentaries on the gospels (‘skeireins’)
  • list of 68 words written down by the Flandrish nobleman Ogier Ghiselin of Busbecq (ambassador to Constantinople in 1560-62).
  • Example from Marcus X, 14-15
  • ‘letiππo barna gaggan du mis jah ni warjiππo, unte πize ist πiudangardi gudis. amen, qiπa izwis: saei ni andnimiππiudangardja gudis swe barn, ni πauh qimiπ in izai.’
  • ‘Let the children go to me and not hinder them, to such is the kingdom of God. Amen, I tell you: who not accepts the kingdom of God like a child, not comes into it.’
  • Example by Tolkien
  • Brunaim bairiπ Bairka bogumlaubans liubans liudanei,The birch bears fine leaves on shining boughsgilwagroni, glitmunjandei,it grows pale green and glitteringbagme bloma, blauandeithe flower of the trees in bloom
  • Valarin = language of the Valar; according to Kloczko, some of the names in Valinor cannot be explained within an Elvish framework, e.g. Lake Irtinsa
  • further examples: mirub = wine; maxal = legal, in accordance with authority; phana = illuminated
  • the Valar, when communicating with the Elves, use Elvish and Valarin remains a ‘secret’ language used by the Valar and Maiar among themselves. Nevertheless, some of the words in the Elvish languages and in Khuzdul show strong similarities to Valarin words.
  • secret language of the dwarves
  • names of places and mountains: Azanulbizar = Vale of Dim StreamsBarazinbar = Caradhras = RedhornBundushathûr = Fanuidhol = CloudyheadZirakzigil = Celebdil = Silvertine
  • single words: baruk = axe, kheled = mirror, gabil = great, powerful
  • slow, sonorous language of the Ents and the Huorns (Sind. hu- = speaking; orn = tree)
  • a-lalla-lalla-rumba-kamanda-lindor-burúme
  • part of the name of the hill in Fangorn where Merry & Pippin meet Treebeard
black speech
Black Speech
  • Ash nazg durbatulûk,One ring to rule them all ash nazg gimbatul,One Ring to find themash nazg thrakatulûkOne Ring to bring them all agh burzum-ishi krimpatul.and in the darkness bind them.
black speech1
Black Speech
  • created by Sauron during the Dark Years of the Second Age. Intended as an ‘evil Esperanto’ for his servants, yet proved too complex for most of the orks and trolls, so that the main speakers were the Nazgûl and the higher-ranking officers of Sauron (‘Mouth of Sauron’)
black speech2
Black Speech
  • Ash nazg durbatulûk,One ring to rule them all
  • ash = one
  • nazg = ring
  • durba- = to govern
  • -tul- = them
  • -ûk = all
black speech3
Black Speech
  • ash nazg gimbatul,One Ring to find them
  • gimba- = find
  • ash nazg thrakatulûkOne Ring to bring them all
  • thraka- = to bring
black speech4
Black Speech
  • agh burzum-ishi krimpatul.and in the darkness bind them
  • agh = and
  • burzum = shadow, darkness
  • ishi = into
  • krimpa- = bind
black speech5
Black Speech
  • individual words and sentences
  • Uglúk u bagronk sha pushdug Saruman-glob búbhosh skai. (‘The Uruk-hai’ 466)
  • Uglúk to the cesspool, sha! the dungfilth; the great Saruman fool, skai!
  • Uglúk to the dung-pit with stinking Saruman-filth - pig-guts gah!
  • ghâsh = fire; olog = troll; oghor = wild men
  • mostly names: Bolg, Gothmog, Gorbag
  • origin: Melkor-Morgoth ‘creates’ the orks during the First Age. It is assumed that the orks of Angband all spoke the same language, Orkish
  • from the Second Age onwards, the orks developed as many dialects/languages as there are tribes and peoples of their race
westron common speech
Westron = Common Speech
  • Westron = sôval phâre
  • origin goes back to the 19th century of SA when Númenorean mariners established permantent settlements in Middle-earth (primarily for trade)
  • The Adûnaic spoken in these towns begins to be influenced by the surrounding languages => Adûnaic based pidgin
westron common speech1
Westron = Common Speech
  • After the downfall of Númenor, Adûnaic is more and more replaced in Middle-earth by either Westron (creolisized pidgin) and Sindarin (due to language-policiy of the last Númenorean kings)
  • Rohan? Rohanese? Rohanic?
  • A northern speech, more archaic than the Westron
  • translated as Old English (Mercian)
  • originally also a northern speech (hobbits lived on the upper part of the Anduin close to the Rohirrim)
  • gave up their original language when entering the Shire and adopted Westron as their first language
  • Westron names of hobbits:
  • Maura
  • = Frodo
  • Ban (< Banazîr) Galpsi
  • = Sam (Samwise) Gamgee
  • Razar (Razanur) Tûk
  • = Pippin (Peregrin) Took
  • Kali (Kalimak) Brandagamba
  • = Merry (Meriadoc) Brandybuck
  • kuduk (kûd-dûkan)
  • = hobbit
  • kûd = hole => hol-
  • dûkan = dweller => bytla
  • => kûd-dûkan = hol-bytlan
  • kûd-dûkan > kuduk
  • hol-bytlan > hobbit
  • banakil
  • = halfling (half-man)
  • the Shire = Sûza < ON sysla = district
  • Laban-neg
  • = Bag-end
other human languages
Other Human Languages
  • Dunlending (forgoil)
  • Wose
  • Haradric
  • Khandic
  • etc.
the languages of arda1
The Languages of Arda
  • Edouard Kloczko, 2002, Dictionnaire des Langues des Hobbits, des Nains, des Orques etc. Argenteuil: Arda.
  • Ruth S. Noel, 1980, The Languages of Tolkien’s Middle-earth, Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  • Jim Allan, 1978, An Introduction to Elvish, Frome: Bran’s Head.
  • Ruth S. Noel, 1980, The Languages of Tolkien’s Middle-earth, Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  • Edouard Kloczko, 1995, Dictionnaire des Langues Elfiques. Toulon: Tamise.
  • Helmut W. Pesch, 2003, Elbisch: Grammatik, Schrift und Wörterbuch, Bergisch Gladbach: Bastei Lübbe.
  • Helmut W. Pesch, 2004, Elbisch: Lern- und Übungsbuch, Bergisch Gladbach: Bastei Lübbe.
  • Wolfgang Krege, 2003, Elbisches Wörterbuch nach J.R.R. Tolkien, Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta.
nam ri quenya
Namárië (Quenya)
  • Ai! láurië lántar lássi súrinèn,Alas! leaves fall golden wind-in
  • yéni ùnótimè ve rámar áldarón!years not-countable as trees-of wings
  • Yéni ve linte yúldar avániërYears have passed like swift draughts
  • etc. see copy
a elbereth gilthoniel sindarin
A Elbereth Gilthoniel (Sindarin)
  • A Elbereth GilthonielO Elbereth Star-kindler
  • silivren penna mirielglittering slants-down sparkling like jewels
  • o menel aglar elenath!from firmament glory [of] the star-host
a elbereth gilthoniel sindarin1
A Elbereth Gilthoniel (Sindarin)
  • Na-chaered palan-dirielto-remote distance after-having gazed
  • o galadhremmin ennorath,o tree-tangled middle-lands,
  • Fanuilos, le linnathonFanuilos, to thee I will chant
  • nef aear, si nef aearon!on this side of ocean here on this side of the Great Ocean.
a elbereth gilthoniel sindarin2
A Elbereth Gilthoniel (Sindarin)
  • O Elbereth who lit the stars, from glittering crystal slanting falls with light like jewels from heaven on high the glory of the starry host. To lands remote I have looked afar, and now to thee, Fanuilos, bright spirit clothed in ever-white, I here will sing beyond the Sea, beyond the wide and sundering Sea.
  • J.R.R. Tolkien, music by Donald Swann, 1968/1978/2002, The Road Goes Ever On, London: HarperCollins.
  • The Tolkien Ensemble: An Evening in Rivendell (1997) A Night in Rivendell (2000), At Dawn in Rivendell (2002).
quenya sindarin
Quenya & Sindarin
  • situation in Middle-earth in the TA
  • Quenya has not been used as the language of everyday communication for thousands of year => ban on Quenya by Thingol and the Grey Elves because of the Kinslaying of Alqualondë
  • => Quenya used as the language of learning and ritual; ‘Elven Latin’
  • based on Finnish, with Latin and Greek influences
  • ‘ancient’ language with many grammatical features still visible that have disappeared from more recent languages
  • examples: grammatical cases
  • Quenya: Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Poss. Instr.
  • but also
  • Ablativ: mindonna = from the tower
  • Lokativ: mindosse = at the tower
  • Allativ: mindollo = to the tower
  • plural forms: dual, general plural, collective plural (lasset, lassi, lasseli)
  • dual: máryat = her two hands (má = hand, rya = her, t = dual)
quenya sindarin1
Quenya & Sindarin
  • Sindarin used as language of everyday communication
  • Sindarin also spoken by the Dunedain of Gondor
quenya sindarin2
Quenya & Sindarin
  • differences Quenya vs. Sindarin:
  • S kept original th (> Q s): Q Isil vs. S Ithil (moon)
  • Q mb, nd, ng > m, n / S b, d, g => *mba- (Ambar, Q world) = home =>
  • Q mar, S bar
  • Q plural endings S plural vowel mutation: amon (hill) - emyn, tulus (poplar tree) - tylys (cf. I-mutation)
quenya sindarin3
Quenya & Sindarin
  • in Sindarin the word-beginnings may also change according to their environment (a typical characteristic of Celtic languages) => Welsh model for Sindarin; but with many exceptions!
  • Example: Lasto beth nîn. - Listen to my voice.beth is a weakened form of peth ‘voice’
quenya sindarin4
Quenya & Sindarin
  • pedo mellon a minnoGandalf: Speak, friend, and enter.should have been read: Speak ‘friend’ and enter.
  • but the correct Sindarin should then have read:pedon vellon a minno (weakening of ‘mellon’ as the object of the sentence) => Gandalf was right, Celebrimbor had made a slight (but vital) mistake.
beyond lotr
Beyond LotR
  • The Silmarillion
  • The Hobbit
  • Unfinished Tales
  • History of Middle-earth (HoME)
  • Smith of Wootton Major
  • Farmer Giles of Ham
  • Roverandom
  • Father Christmas Letters
tolkien the academic
Tolkien the Academic
  • Tree and Leaf
  • The Monsters and the Critics
beyond tolkien
Beyond Tolkien
  • …….
  • Philip Pullman: The Golden Compass, The Subtle Knife, The Amber Spyglass
the road goes ever on
The Road Goes Ever On
  • 2. Tolkien-Seminar der Deutschen Tolkien Gesellschaft15.-17. April 2005FSU Jena