Announcements. Final 8:00, Friday, May 11. ( A-L here; M-Z 100 MSEB ). Predictions:. females. males. Women prefer less masculine male faces (and men prefer more masculine faces in women) for long term relationships under conditions of environmental harshness.
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Final 8:00, Friday, May 11.
(A-L here; M-Z 100 MSEB)
Women prefer less masculine male faces (and men prefer more masculine faces in women) for long term relationships under conditions of environmental harshness.
Consistent with idea that high-quality partners may be low investors and suggests that under harsh ecological conditions, men and women prefer a low quality / high investment partner for long term relationships.
Like many animals, social groups in humans are often made up of related individuals.
correlation of behavior across multiple contexts
for example, aggression (territorial disputes vs. mating)
Same as personality in humans?
Growing consensus that many descriptors of personality can be characterized into five broad underlying dimensions of personality (The Big Five Model – John, 1990)
Extraversion assertive, energetic, quiet, shy, withdrawn
Neuroticism anxious, emotional, calm, at ease, unemotional moody
Conscientiousness dependable, organized, careless, irresponsible practical frivolous
Agreeableness cooperative, generous, cold, quarrelsome, selfish
Openness curious, imaginative, shallow, simple
Tendency to be engaged
Tendency toward neg.moods
Tendency to plan & conform
Tend to cooperate
Tend toward diversity
Extraversion extroverted introverted
Neuroticism nervous, high-strung calm, relaxed
Conscientiousness conscientious disorganized
Agreeableness agreeable disagreeable
Openness open to new experiences close-minded
Take the Big Five test:
-different experiences in the same environment-differential parental treatment of siblings or favoritism
-different experiences in different environments --having different friends in school
-reacting to the same event in different ways-parental divorce
Serotonin transporter gene, 5HTT
Nitric oxide synthase
A defect in nurturing in mice
lacking the immediate early
Brown JR, Ye H, Bronson RT, Dikkes P, Greenberg ME.
Elovainio, et al. 2005. The mediating role of novelty seeking in the association between the type 4-dopamine receptor gene polymorphism and cigarette-smoking behavior.
Examined the relationship between variation at type 4 dopamine receptor gene and cigarette-smoking behavior and the mediating role of the temperamental novelty seeking.
The two- and five-repeat alleles were significantly more common in the group of current smokers than others (ratio 2.53). After controlling for the effect of novelty seeking on smoking behavior, the relationship dropped substantially, being no longer statistically significant.
Serotonin is 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine), serotonin transporter is 5-HTT
5-HTT--serontonin transporter (presynaptic side)
5-HTT is also the target of cocaine and methylphenidate
5-HT receptors are stimulated by LSD
Polymorphisms in 5-HTT in the promoter region
16-repeat- l long
‘s’ is associated with reduced transcription and is
dominant to ‘l’
Individuals with at least one copy of ‘s’ scored higher on
Association with 5-HTT has been reported for violent suicide
and early onset alcoholism
Serotonin is important for neuroticism
Studies in knock-out mice
Null mutants for the serotonin 1a receptor
(5-HT1A) show elevated levels of anxiety
Null mutants for 5-HT1B show reductions in anxiety
and elevations in aggression
mutation in a single Dutch family correlates with violent behavior
Null mutants for DRD4 show reduced response to novelty
The interaction between low serotonin and high testosterone levels in
Some people have only one psychotic episode during their lifetime
Others have many episodes during a lifetime but lead relatively normal lives during the interim
Individuals with chronic or recurring schizophrenia often do not fully recover
There is no definitive marker: diagnosis is made
Males have an earlier age of onset than females
male incidence peaks in mid-20s
female incidence peaks around 30
second, lower incident peak around menopause
Evidence suggests that the predisposition is inherited, not the certainty of developing Schizophrenia itself.
some seasonally varying factor alters the developing CNS, increasing an individual’s lifetime risk
parents of schizophrenic patients have an unusual pattern of conception
One of the most consistent findings in schizophrenia is that the distribution of birth dates of
individuals with schizophrenia differs from that of the general population.
“anxiety and aggression” gene?
Gene Linked To Alcoholism Alcoholism tends to run in families, suggesting that addiction, at least in part, has an underlying genetic cause. Now, researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have discovered a gene linked to alcohol dependency. Laboratory mice deficient in the gene were found to consume excessive amounts of alcohol, preferring ethanol to water and evincing highly anxious behavior in a maze test.
Drunken Fruit Flies Reveal Molecular Pathway Regulating Sensitivity To Alcohol (June 17, 1998) -- Researchers at UC San Francisco have identified a molecular pathway in intoxicated fruit flies that is responsible for regulating the flies' meandering, wobbling responses to alcohol.
C-correlates with self-
correlates with spirituality
Reported in a book by
Dr. Dean Hamer, The God
Gene: How faith is hardwired
Into our genes
Chief of gene structure, NCI