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Survey of Commentaries. Von Rad, Gerhard. Old Testament Library Mayes, A. D. H. New Century Bible Weinfeld, Moshe. Anchor Bible. Through chapter 11 Miller, Patrick. Interpretation Frymer-Kensky, Tikva. Women’s Bible Commentary Clements, Ronald E. New Interpreter’s Bible.

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survey of commentaries
Survey of Commentaries
  • Von Rad, Gerhard. Old Testament Library
  • Mayes, A. D. H. New Century Bible
  • Weinfeld, Moshe. Anchor Bible. Through chapter 11
  • Miller, Patrick. Interpretation
  • Frymer-Kensky, Tikva. Women’s Bible Commentary
  • Clements, Ronald E. New Interpreter’s Bible
historical setting i
Historical Setting I
  • 640 Josiah becomes king
  • 632 and 628 Early reform efforts according to 2 Chronicles
  • 627 Declining power of Assyria; death of Asshurbanapal
  • 625 Nabopolassar became king of Neo- Babylonian empire
historical setting ii
Historical Setting II
  • 621 Book of Law (=Deuteronomy) found while temple repairs going on
  • 609 Josiah died; Jeremiah’s temple sermon
  • 605 Nebuchadnezzar comes to power
  • 605 Egypt defeated at Carchemish
  • 601 Jehoiakim revolts
  • 598 Jehoiakim “dies.” Jehoiachin king
historical setting iii
Historical Setting III
  • 597 First Deportation of Jerusalem
  • 593-572 Ezekiel’s ministry
  • 587/6 Jerusalem falls to Babylonians
  • 561 Release of Jehoiachin from prison
  • 550 Deuteronomistic History: Deut 1-4; Joshua; Judges; Samuel; Kings
  • 547 Second Isaiah
  • 539 Babylon falls to Persia
outline of deuteronomy
Outline of Deuteronomy
  • 1:1-4:43 First sermon
  • 5:1-28:68 Second sermon
    • 12-26 Law Code
    • 27 Ceremony at Shechem
    • 28 Blessings and curses
  • 29:1-30:20 Third sermon
  • 31-34 appendices
book of the law dewette
Book of the Law--DeWette
  • It could not have been lost since it was so important
  • Many parallels between the reform of Josiah and the Book of Deuteronomy
  • Date of Deuteronomy = Hinge for documentary hypothesis
  • Terminus ad quem: 621B.C.E.
  • Northern authorship? role of Levites, elders, and prophets
parallels between deuteronomy and josiah s reform in 2 kings
Cult centralization 12:13ff; 2 Kgs 23:8-9, 19

star worship 17:3; 2 Kgs 23:11-12

male and female cult prostitutes 23:17; 2 Kgs 23:7

child sacrifice and Molech cult 18:10; 2 Kgs 23:10

Necromancy 18:11; 2 Kgs 23:4

Asherim 7:5; 12:3; 2 Kgs 23:4, 6, 7, 14

Pillars 7:5; 12:3; 2 Kgs 23:14

high places 7:5; 12:2, 3; 2 Kgs 23:13

centralized passover 16:1-8; 2 Kgs 23:21-23

Parallels Between Deuteronomy and Josiah’s Reform in 2 Kings
terminology used in scholarly discussions
Terminology used in scholarly discussions
  • “Words” = Name of Deuteronomy in TNK
  • Deuteronomium: Deut 17:18: “a copy of this law”
  • Ur Deuteronomium
  • Deuteronomic (D; Deut)
  • Deuteronomistic History (Dtr); redaction of Jeremiah and other books
slide9
“Love”
  • Amarna: The vassal must love Pharaoh
  • 1 Kgs 5:1 Hiram had always loved David
  • Hosea--first reference to God’slove for Israel
  • Deuteronomy--first to speak also of Israel’s love for God
  • Jesus: If you love me, keep my commandments
deut 4 29 31 hope in exile
Deut 4:29-31 Hope in Exile
  • From there [exile] you will seek the Lord your God, and you will find him if you search after him with all your heart ….When all these things have happened to you in time to come, you will return to the Lord your God and heed him. The Lord your God is a merciful God, he will neither abandon you nor destroy you; he will not forget the covenant with your ancestors that he swore to them.
election
Election
  • Terms: “bachar”; “prized possession”
  • Deut 4:37-39; 7:6-11; 10:14-15
  • Reasons for God’s choice:
    • God loved you
    • God kept promises to the ancestors (Abraham? or Exodus generation?)
    • not because of your righteousness, but because of wickedness of the nations
the shema deut 6 4
The Shema--Deut 6:4
  • NRSV, NLT: Hear, O Israel: The Lord is our God, the Lord alone
  • RSV: Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord
  • NIV: Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one.
the benefits of obedience
The Benefits of Obedience
  • He will bless the fruit of your womb and the fruit of your ground, your grain and your wine and your oil, the increase of your cattle and the issue of your flock….The Lord will turn away from you every illness….You shall devour all the peoples that the Lord your God is giving over to you. Deut 7:14-16