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Music. Chapter 6. Egyptians developed formal music Greek word “harmony” indicates a connection between music and the structure of the universe. Origins of Music. Tone . The Scale. Basic element of music True music began when someone experimented with a variety of tones.

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Chapter 6

origins of music

Egyptians developed formal music

  • Greek word “harmony” indicates a connection between music and the structure of the universe
Origins of Music

The Scale

  • Basic element of music
  • True music began when someone experimented with a variety of tones
  • Orderly progression of frequencies
  • All cultures that developed music used a scale


  • Alternating between stress and unstress
  • Innate, babies clap and drum
  • “Rhythm is at the very center of our lives”
  • Sequence of tones that forms a unity
  • The part we remember, sing along with
  • Unpublicized ingredient that makes music possible
  • To deepen an appreciation of music, it is necessary to hear and enjoy silence
  • “music is the shaped sound between silences”
Bach Fugue

Beethoven Symphony

  • Baroque
  • Fugues-displays of counterpoint
  • Idea is to demonstrate that what for the average person would be an impossibility is indeed well within the capabilities of the performer
  • Beethoven greatly expanded the capabilities of the symphony orchestra
  • Work has transcended time.
  • Ode to Joy
Art Songs

Folk Songs

  • By the time of the great composers song was a recognized art form
  • Ave Maria
  • Folk song has followed few aesthetic rules
  • don’t need expert voices or accompaniment
  • Handed down through generations
  • Promote group solidarity
genres of folk music

Commemorative songs- keep record of important events

  • Work song- represents hardship, struggle between worker and management
  • Accumulation song- deliberately drawn out, verse after verse (12 days of Christmas)
  • Narrative song- tells a tale, drawn out
  • Protest Songs- make statements about war, pollution, corruption
Genres of Folk Music
The Spiritual

Gospel Songs

  • Roots in slavery
  • Religious subject matter, God’s concern for all
  • Led to Gospel music
  • Music that is written to express either personal, spiritual or a communal belief regarding Christian life
  • Gospel music in general is characterized by dominant vocals


  • America music, from saloons and bars
  • Syncopation-irregular movement, against the beat
  • Scott Joplin- The Entertainer
  • Pattern-ensemble plays once together, then each piece takes a turn doing a variation on the theme
  • improv
  • Billy Holiday

Melancholy mood produced by music

Usually about the aftermath of passion

popular songs

Big Band Era- dance music played by orchestras, upbeat music to escape the Depression and WWII

  • Irving Berlin-composed classics, “White Christmas”, “God Bless America”
  • Frank Sinatra- crooner, possibly the greatest of all vocal stylists
Popular Songs
the beginnings of rock

Rock is the most pervasive musical phenomenon of our time

  • Bill Haley and the Comets (Rock Around the Clock) is the band credited for introducing the musical movement called rock ‘n’ roll

Rock is a

revolutionary battle

cry, ultimate

Dionysian music of

our time

The Beginnings of Rock
Little Richard


  • True “father” of Rock
  • Outlandish outfits, playing piano and jumping around
  • Cultural phenomenon, scandalized older audiences
  • Started out spontaneous but studio created force
  • Elvis on Ed Sullivan for the First Time
the beatles
The Beatles
  • Caught on as no other group has
  • Appealed to “hippies” wanted freedom from constraint
  • Unique haircuts, irreverent attitudes
  • Admired for their honesty and purity of heart
rock concert
Rock Concert
  • Concert is one of the cornerstones of modern musical culture
  • Art in itself, showmanship, effects, props, multimedia
hip hop

Newer genre, has become very significant part of society

  • Defines a way of being, “includes rap, baggy clothes, break-dancing, graffiti, vocabulary and a general lifestyle”
    • Rap is a subgenre of hip hop, half-sung half-spoken music
    • Represents a virtuoso use of language and an incredible kind of spontaneous poetry
Hip Hop
the musical avant garde

Avant-garde- looks after our best interests, protects us from the dull and familiar

  • Need to be free from restraint
  • Always looking for the next frontier
The Musical Avant-Garde

Life can be enriched if you are willing to listen to the great classics of the past and the perhaps great-one-day experiments of the present.