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Against All Odds African Americans & Problem Gambling. AFRICAN AMERICAN - FACTS. The rate of problem gambling is significantly higher among minorities and lower income individuals and the negative effects of problem gambling disproportionately affect these individuals. (University of Buffalo)

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against all odds african americans problem gambling

Against All OddsAfrican Americans& Problem Gambling

Problem Gambling TA & Training Project

african american facts
AFRICAN AMERICAN - FACTS
  • The rate of problem gambling is significantly higher among minorities and lower income individuals and the negative effects of problem gambling disproportionately affect these individuals. (University of Buffalo)
  • Problem drinkers are 23x more likely to also have a gambling problem, than individuals who do not have a problem with alcohol. (University of Buffalo)
  • California boasts the 2nd largest African American population in the country, with much lower net worth than White households. (U.S. Census, 2000)

Problem Gambling TA & Training Project

types of gambling activity in the african american community
Types of Gambling Activity in the African American Community
  • Numbers Running
  • Pool Halls
  • Race Tracks
  • Street Dice Games
  • Cards
  • Casinos
  • Lottery
  • Scratch Offs
  • Bingo
  • Sports Betting

Problem Gambling TA & Training Project

comparison of frequency at unlicensed games by ethnicity
Comparison of Frequency at Unlicensed Games by Ethnicity

***All differences significant to .001

Problem Gambling TA & Training Project

african americans research

In California prevalence study: Only 6% of non-PG’s were African Americans, whereas 14% of PG’s were African Americans. (1990)

AFRICAN AMERICANS - Research

Problem Gambling TA & Training Project

contributing sociological factors
Contributing Sociological Factors
  • Social Rewards
    • Social Interaction
    • Sensory Stimulation
    • Decision-making Opportunities
    • Group Membership
    • Emotional / Moral Support
    • Self Esteem
  • Problems with Outside Society
    • Loss of Social Networks
    • Value Conflicts

Problem Gambling TA & Training Project

african american challenges
AFRICAN AMERICAN CHALLENGES
  • Sociological factors for gambling, especially for African American males are social reinforcements and a false sense of power related to the Invisibility Syndrome
  • This is also true for African American adolescent males, who according to a study by researchers from Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, have high rates of problem gambling, combined with externalizing behaviors, impulsivity and hyperactivity, particularly if they live in disadvantaged neighborhoods

Problem Gambling TA & Training Project

invisibility syndrome
Invisibility Syndrome
  • Frustration
  • Increased awareness of perceived slights
  • Chronic indignation
  • Pervasive discontent & disgruntlement
  • Anger
  • Immobilization or increasing inability to get things done
  • Questions one’s worthiness
  • Disillusionment & confusion
  • Feeling trapped
  • Conflicted racial identity
  • Internalized rage
  • Depression
  • Substance Abuse
  • Loss of Hope

Problem Gambling TA & Training Project

ethnicity within pathology
Ethnicity within Pathology

*** All differences significant to .001.

Problem Gambling TA & Training Project

slide10

Psychological Factors

  • Personality
    • Sensation Seeking
    • Impulsivity
  • Mood States
    • Depression
    • Anxiety
  • Addictions
    • Co-occurring Disorders
    • Substance abuse / dependence
    • Recovery
slide11

Familial Factors

  • Social Learning
    • Parents may serve to model gambling behaviors
    • Study participants who reported that parents have gambling problems were more likely to be pathological gamblers themselves.
    • Genetic Predisposition
    • Twin study found some heritability for pathological gambling symptoms based on DSM-III
    • Molecular genetic study found evidence for shared genetic component among pathological gamblers

Problem Gambling TA & Training Project

slide12

Impact on Families

The most common problem is the loss of money. Savings, property or belongings may suddenly be lost. This kind of money crisis makes the family feel scared, angry and betrayed.

Gambling problems cause strong feelings among family

members, which make it harder to solve problems. Many partners of those with gambling problems do not want to be emotionally or physically close with the person who has hurt them. Family members may avoid other people, because they feel ashamed.

slide13

Family Impact: Emotional Problems

  • Most people who gamble excessively have mixed feelings about gambling. They know they are causing problems for the people they love. They may become anxious and unhappy, and often hate themselves. But the urge to gamble is too great to resist.
  • They feel they can’t give up on all the time, money and emotion they have put into gambling. They can’t accept that they will never win back what they have lost.
  • Family violence is more common when families are in crisis. Gambling problems can lead to physical or emotional abuse of a partner, elder parent or child.
slide14

Family Impact: Physical/Mental Health

The stress of gambling problems sometimes causes health

problems, for both the person who gambles and the family.

This can include anxiety, depression and stress-related

problems such as poor sleep, ulcers, bowel problems,

headaches and muscle pains.

Many families under stress have trouble coping. One

member may try to keep things in control by taking on

more tasks. This can lead to burnout. Family members

often forget to take care of themselves or to have fun.

slide15

Family Impact: Children

When a parent or caregiver has a gambling problem,

children can feel forgotten, depressed and angry. They may

believe they caused the problem and that if they are “good,”

the problem will stop. Children may believe they must take

sides between their parents. They may stop trusting a parent

who makes promises he or she doesn’t keep. Some children

may try to draw attention away from the parent with the

gambling problem by misbehaving.

slide16

Senior citizens are the fastest growing age group in the country

  • Seniors now form the largest group of annual visitors to Las Vegas
  • California hotlines: between 1999 & 2003, calls from older adults increase 25%
  • Less likely to seek help, view treatment more negatively than other age groups

Older Adults

Problem Gambling TA & Training Project

slide17

Increased time on hands, accumulated wealth, compounded with social isolation, where gambling = acceptance & inclusion

  • Targeted by gambling industry as a large consumer group
  • Gambling onset may also have been preceded by the death of loved ones – i.e. spouse, friends, etc.
  • At greater risk for suicide
  • Need for age-specific interventions for older problem gamblers.
  • Depression / anxiety, poor & deteriorating health

Problem Gambling TA & Training Project

slide19

Women

Between 1975 and 1998, women who reported lifetime gambling increased 22%, as compared to 13% for men.

Gambling impacts women differently: more likely to experience anxiety or suicide attempts as a result of gambling.

Gambling usually becomes a problem later in life

Experience a faster progression, often becoming problematic almost immediately, and hitting bottom within 1 to 3 years.

Problem Gambling TA & Training Project

slide20

Women have a narrower scope of gambling (non-strategic games) and tend to be classified as escape gamblers, whereas men tend to be “action” gamblers.

  • Women are far less likely to seek help for gambling problems.
  • Traditional treatment modalities such as GA are historically male-dominated
  • Likely codependent
  • Often a victim of abuse.

Problem Gambling TA & Training Project

slide21

History of any abuse or neglect 84.2%; emotional, abuse (65.8%); physical abuse (63.2%) and sexual abuse (47.4%). Moore, 2002

  • 63% reported medium-severe problem childhoods; personal history of substance abuse. Davis, 2004
  • Pre-occuring mental health conditions: any mental condition 81.6%; dis-associative disorder (68.4%) ; mood disorder (39.5%) and anxiety disorder (7.9%). Moore, 2002
  • Blacks are the ONLY ethnicity where female gamblers outnumber male gamblers (51%).

Florida Council on Compulsive Gambling, 2009

Problem Gambling TA & Training Project

what s recovery got to do with it
What’s Recovery Got to Do With It?
  • For 2 - 5% of the population, gambling is an addiction that destroys them personally, professionally and financially, not unlike alcoholism or drug abuse.

BUT…

  • For persons with alcohol and/or drug related problems (or in recovery), that number increases to an estimated 25-30%!

University of Buffalo

Research Institute on Addictions

dsm iv substance dependence criteria
DSM-IV: Substance Dependence Criteria
  • Persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control. A great deal of time is spent in activities-getting, using, recovering.

Loss of Control

  • Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are reduced or eliminated. Use continues despite known negative consequences. Damage or Disruption
  • A need for markedly increased amounts of the substance to achieve intoxication; or markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of the substance. Tolerance
  • Withdrawal, as manifested by either withdrawal symptoms, or substance is taken to avoid withdrawal symptoms.
  • The substance is often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than intended. Dependence
culture problem gambling
CULTURE & PROBLEM GAMBLING
  • Cultural values found to:
    • influence the social acceptance of behaviors such as alcohol consumption
    • influence attitudes toward gambling, ranging from total abstinence to qualified endorsements
    • Collectivist cultures might exert greater influence over gambling behaviors
    • influence the type of gambling that may be punished and those that may be reinforced

Problem Gambling TA & Training Project

community ties
COMMUNITY TIES
  • African Americans tend to utilize social support networks i.e. churches, extended family members, etc., rather than seek “professional” help.
  • Use a Community Mental Health approach, (multi-system levels) extending interventions beyond the individual into the community/social systems and indigenous resources within that community (churches, etc)
  • Utilize the national standards related to culturally and linguistically appropriate services (CLAS)

Problem Gambling TA & Training Project

the importance of the church in african american communities
The Importance of the Church in African American Communities
  • Spirituality and Religion have been essential components of the African American cultural heritage and a major source of support, strength and survival.
  • The organized Black church is the oldest and most influential institution founded, maintained, and controlled by Black people.
  • The Black church has guided the evolution of the African American family/community structure: from parenting styles, healing practices, rites of passage and racial socialization.

Problem Gambling TA & Training Project

why involve the faith community
Why Involve the Faith Community?
  • Over 300,000 local congregations with over 150 million members
  • 6 out of 10 Americans say their faith is the most important influence in their lives
  • Faith communities are integral to the development of a healthy community
  • A strategy that connects and includes education, health and human service systems and engages neighborhood and community/faith-based organizations is crucial to formulating solutions

Problem Gambling TA & Training Project

challenges of the community model
Challenges of the Community Model
  • Competitive atmosphere among treatment providers and parochialism among culturally-specific agencies
  • High occurrence of co-occurring/co-morbid illnesses
  • Lack of, or bare bones, minority serving agencies, with little or no gambling treatment competence and no best practices
  • Lack of trained, same culture treatment professionals and no cogent workforce development plan
  • Lack of knowledge of the CLAS standards, and their implementation

Problem Gambling TA & Training Project

gambling with the future
Gambling with The Future

There is a significant body of research to support that while development of a strong ethnic identity can act as a protective factor against drug use among African American teens; African American adolescent males have been identified as the population most likely to become pathological gamblers.

Problem Gambling TA & Training Project