‘ King Hob ’ : King Nobody. We will be exploring Robert the Bruce ’ s first year as King. Bruce ’ s first year as King was a disaster! He was defeated, his wife and children were captured by Edward, and three of his brothers were executed. The English called him ‘ King
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‘King Hob’: King Nobody We will be exploring Robert the Bruce’s first year as King.
Bruce’s first year as King was a disaster! He was defeated, his wife and children were captured by Edward, and three of his brothers were executed. The English called him ‘King Hob’ as he seemed to have none of the control expected of a King.
Bruce defeated at Methven Wood 19th June, 1306 • Bruce hid his men in the wood ready to attack Perth. • English showed up in the morning and attacked by surprise. RESULT = • Leading supporters captured & executed • Ordinary people deserted Bruce.
Defeated again: Dalry 11th July, 1306 • Bruce and followers were fleeing towards mountains of Argyll. • MacDougall (son-in-law of Comyn) and men attacked as Bruce passed his territory. RESULT = 2nd defeat; Bruce forced to leave Scotland.
Kildrummy Castle: September, 1306 • Bruce and followers were fleeing towards mountains of Argyll. • MacDougall (son-in-law of Comyn) and men attacked as Bruce passed his territory. RESULT = 2nd defeat; Bruce forced to leave Scotland.
Kildrummy Castle: September, 1306 • Nigel Bruce and Earl of Atholl took the female members of Bruce’s family to the safety of this Aberdeenshire castle. • The English besieged and the castle surrendered. RESULT = • Nigel Bruce captured & executed • Earl of Atholl escaped with the ladies.
After the English siege Kildrummy and while Atholl and the ladies made their way further north, they were captured by the English. • Elizabeth Bruce (wife): House Arrest • Marjorie Bruce (daughter): Imprisoned in Tower of London • Mary Bruce (sister): Open cage hanging from Roxburgh castle • Isabella, Countess of Buchan: Open cage hanging from Berwick castle • Earl of Atholl: Executed. • RESULT = EVERYTHING OF IMPORTANCE TAKEN. EDWARD SHOWN TO BE MORE POWERFUL.
Raid on Carrick: 10th February 1307 • Bruce and brothers (Alexander & Thomas) landed at Carrick in an attempt to gain more support. But, they were immediately attacked by the English garrison. RESULT = • Thomas and Alexander were captured and executed • Robert Bruce had fled
Guerrilla tactics Bruce would no longer fight on open ground. He would use: • Spreading fear and panic • Surprise • Mobility • Small scale fights • Scorched earth • Dismantling castles
Glen Trool, April 1307 • Bruce’s HQ was here. English found out & made their way to attack Bruce. Bruce and his men attacked. RESULT: • English sustained heavy losses • Scots win • Gained more supporters • Now set up HQ at Galston
Loundon Hill, May 1307 • Edward sent army to Galston. So, Bruce retreated to Loundon. Why? Backed English into small area. RESULT: • English sustained heavy losses • Bruce heads north to continue campaign
Death of Edward I, 7th July 1307 • En route to Scotland to ‘sort Bruce out’, Edward died near Carlisle. Edward II was not as interested in Scotland as his father. RESULT: • Edward II led his army to Cumnock and turned homewards. • English garrisons left without leadership. • Bruce no longer had a strong English competitor & could abuse Edward II’s neglect of Scotland.
Defeating the Comyns, 1307-1309 Herschip of Galloway – south west Herschip of Buchan – north east Battle of the Pass of Brander
Destroying Castles Bruce destroyed castles such as Perth in order to: • Prevent the English from controlling Scottish castles • Bruce’s men could be redirected from trying to gain control of castles to fighting the English in another way.
How fully does Source A explain why Bruce was called ‘King Hob’ in the first year of his reign as King of Scotland? (6) Bruce claimed the throne of Scotland for himself after murdering the Red Comyn in a church! English called Bruce ‘King Hob’ meaning King Nobody! 1306 was a disastrous year for him. Bruce's sister, Mary, was kept in a cage in Roxburgh Castle. Isabella, Countess of Buchan, who had crowned Bruce, was placed in a cage in Berwick Castle. Both were there for four years open to the public. His wife was put under house arrest and twelve year old daughter was imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Source A is an extract from ‘The Wars of Scotland’ by Dr Michael Brown, 2004. After Carrick, Bruce changed his plans. He decided not to fight his enemies in open battle because he knew he could not confront the well equipped English army head on. Instead he took to the hills and waged guerrilla war, to harass the English and spread fear and panic. Speed, surprise, mobility, small scale fights, scorched earth, dismantling castles were all features of this campaign for the next 7 years. Assess the usefulness of Source A as evidence of Bruce’s recovery after 1306. 5